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Bio 1202 Notes (got 93% on the test)

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Department
Biological Sciences
Course
BIOL 1202
Professor
All Professors
Semester
Winter

Description
Biology1202Notes12110GenesdetermineproteinstructureStructuredetermineshowtheprocessesoflifearecarriedoutGenesvsProteins1GenetoRNAtomakeproteinmRNAtRNArRNA2GenesegmentofDNAlocatedataparticularplaceonachromosome3DNAcodesforspecificaminoacidsequenceinaproteinorfortheRNAthathelpsmakeproteins4AlllifeformsonEarthuseDNAasgeneticmaterialDNAvsRNADNADoublestrandedDeoxyriboseRNAUsuallysinglestrandedRibose3typesmessengerRNAmRNAtransferRNAtRNAandribosomalRNArRNAHowisinfoinagenetranscribedintoRNA1Initiation2Elongation3Termination4RNAmRNAProtein1NucleicAcidsaDNA4nucleotidesbRNA4nucleotides2Proteins20aminoacidsAUGisstartcodon3CodontripletofanucleotidecodesforonespecificaminoacidTranslationakaproteinsynthesisRequirementsoAminoacidsotRNAomRNAoATP3stepsinitiationelongationterminationBiology1202NotesMutations1anychangeinthesequenceofbasesinDNA23TypesaPointmutationchangeinonebasepairbInsertionmutationframeshiftmutationcDeletionmutationframeshiftmutation3RoleinEvolutionTheoryofEvolutonbyNaturalSelection1Achangeinallelefrequenciesinapopulationovertime2Livingspeciesaredescendantsofancestralspeciesthatweredifferentfrompresentdayones12610HistoryofLifeonEarthAfewcenturiesago1Peoplethoughtthatnewlivingthingsappearedallthetime2In1609theideaofspontaneousgenerationwasintroducedLouisPasteurrefutedspontaneousgenerationinthemid1800sHeperformedanexperimentwhereheboiledbrothinsideaclosedcontainertokillallpreexistingmicroorganismsHethenletitsitforafewdaysbutnogrowthorspontaneousgenerationoflifetookplaceConditionsonEarlyEarth1AtmospherecontainedCO2CarbonDioxideCH4MethaneNH3AmmoniaH2HydrogenN2NitrogenHClHydrochloricAcidH2SHydrogenSulfideandH2OsimilartoJupitertoday2Nofreeoxygen3Frequentstorms4Frequentvolcaniceruptionsactivity5Frequentmeteorimpacts6UVlightfromthesunmutationsEarthBeforeLifeArose1Earthisabout46BYARadiometricdatingofmeteoritesandmoonrocks2Lifearoseabout38BYAChemicaltracesinrocks38BYAFossilizedbacteriainrocks35BYANospontaneousgenerationnowbutmusthavehappenedsometimeRateofDecayof40Kto40Arpotassium40naturallydecaystoargon40Biology1202NotesTheExperimentofMillerandUreyTheytriedtosimulateearthsatmosphereusingagaschamberlikesetupAfterafewdaysorganicmoleculesformedsimplesugarsaminoacidscarboxylgroupsetcHowtoAssembleaLivingThing1Accumulationoforganicmolecules2Catalyzereactions3Reproducefromgeneticinformation4SeparatelivingthingfromoutsideenvironmentDNARNAProteinNeedproteinstosynthesizemoreDNAEarliestcellsuseribozymesRNAmoleculethatcancatalyzereactionsespeciallythoseinvolvedinsynthesisandprocessingofRNAitselfMicrospheresasProtocellsWaterelementsenergyPrebioticSoupaminoacidsnucleotideslipidssugarsMicrospherelikeprotocellssurroundingmorecomplexorganicmoleculeslikeRNAcarbohydratesproteinsandlipidsFirstProkaryotesEarliestOrganisms1FirstorganismswereanaerobicprokaryotesaBacteriaandArchaeabEventuallyusedupallenergeticorganicmoleculesledtocompetitionmutationsetc2Photosyntheticbacteriaevolved35BYAaCO2H2OfoodO2bO2accumulatesintheatmosphere22BYAcAerobicmetabolismevolvesdstromatoliteswerefirstsignofphotosyntheticlife3FirstEukaryotes217BYATheoryofEndosymbiosisCertainorganellesespeciallymitochondriaandchloroplastsaroseasmutuallybeneficialassociationsbetweentheancestorsofeukaryoticcellsandcapturedbacteriathatlivedwithinthecytoplasmofthepreeukaryoticcells
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