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TEST 5 Biology 1202: Final Material (Got A+ on the test)

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Louisiana State University
Biological Sciences
BIOL 1202

Exam 5 for Final Material42 43 44 4641713Chapter 42 Circulation and Gas Exchange 421Circulatory systems link exchange surfaces with cells throughout the body Transport systems functionally connect the organs of exchange with the body cells Gastrovascular cavitiesSimple animals like cnidarians have a body wall only 2 cell layers thick between external environment and gastrovascular cavity The cavity function both in digestion and circulation More complex animals have two types of circulatory systems Open circulatory system blood bathes the organs directly arthropods and most mollusks except cephalopods Closed circulatory system blood is confined to vessels and is distinct from the interstitial fluid some invertebrates and all vertebrates Circulatory system parts Both of these types of systems have three basic components1 A circulatory fluid blood2 A set of tubes blood vessels3 A muscular pump the heart Vertebrate Circulatory systemsQ An open circulatory systemA Allows blood and interstitial fluid to mix with each other422Coordinated cycles of heart contraction drive double circulation in mammals The mammalian cardiovascular system The mammalian heartThe Cardiac Cycle Rhythmic contraction and relaxation of the heart Systole contraction or pumping phase Diastole relaxation or filling phase Electrical Impulses Coordinate the Cardiac Cycle Pacemaker cells Heart cells that regularly produce spontaneous electrical impulsesSpread throughout the heartmuscle cells to stimulate them to contract The control of heart rhythm Sinoatrial SA node primary pacemaker Gap junctions between cardiac muscle cells allow impulses to travel along the atrial cells Atrioventricular AV node second pacemaker cell clusterQ Blood returning to the mammalian heart in a pulmonary vein drains first into theA Left atriumQ If a molecule of CO released into the blood in you big toe 2travels out of your nose it must pass through all of the following structures right atrium pulmonary vein alveolus right ventricle exceptA Pulmonary vein423Patterns of blood pressure and flow reflect the structure and arrangement of blood vessels Blood flow away from the heart Arteries thick walled vessels with smooth muscle and connective tissue to withstand high pressure Arterioles branch off of arteries smaller in diameter and help control the distribution of blood flow Blood flow toward the heart Capillaries merge to form larger venules Venules merge to form veins Veins Smooth muscle and connective tissue Low pressure Thinner walled than arteriesContain oneway valves to prevent backflow Skeletal muscle contractions compress veins and drive blood movement towards the heart Capillary functionTwo mechanisms regulate the distribution of blood to capillaries 1 Contraction of smooth muscle layer in arterioles2 Precapillary sphincters regulate flow41913Capillary ExchangeExchange between blood and interstitial fluid takes place across walls of capillariesBlood pressure and osmotic pressure drives fluids out of capillaries at arteriole end and into capillaries at the venule endBlood Flow VelocityThe velocity for blood flow varies in the circulatory systemSlowest in capillary beds because of large totalcross sectional areaQ Fluid moves back into the capillaries at the venous end of a capillary bed as a result ofA an osmotic pressure that is higher than the blood pressure
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