Chapter 23 (got 96%)

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Biological Sciences
BIOL 2051
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Chapter 23Human microflora and nonspecific host defensesHuman MicrofloraHumans colonized by many microbesNormal floraCommensal Mutualistic organismsMicrobe populations change constantlyVary with the type of tissueconditionspH moisture other microbes presentIntestinal flora varies with food eatenCan cause disease if reach abnormal locationThere are billlions of microbial cells living in and on the human bodyAreas which should be sterileInternal organsBloodCerebrospinal fluidSites where bacteria are normally foundSkinOral cavityGastrointestinal tractRespiratory tractUrogenital tractHuman microflora SkinSkin is difficult to colonizeDry salty acidic protective oils lysozyme Microbes grow mostly in moist areasunderarms genitals etcAssociated with sebaceous glands and apocrine glands pH 46Factors that affect types of normal flora weather age personal hygieneMicrobes commonly associated with the skin Most are GStaphylococcusStreptococcusPropionibacteriumGramanaerobic rodPropionbacterium acnes can cause acneBacillusSome yeasts CandidaHuman microflora EyeMost inhibited by lysozyme and continual rinsing of the conjunctiva eye surfaceSometimes S Epidermis and some Gramrods can temporarily reside in eye without causing infectionPinkeyeconjunctivitis can be cause by several types of bacteria and virusesHuman microflora MouthBacteria in the mouth prior to tooth formation are mainly aerotolerant anaerobes such as streptococcus and lactobacillus as well as some yeastAfter teeth emerge anaerobic areas between teeth and gums support anaerobes such as Prevotella and FusabacteriumTeeth and gingival crevices colonized by over 500 species of bacteria Acidic gylcoproteins in saliva form a layer on teeth providing firm attachment site for microbes usually streptococcus speciesExtensive grown of these microbes results in thick bacterial layers called dental plaque
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