Study Guide Questions Metabolism (got 96%)

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Biological Sciences
BIOL 2051
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Metabolism1What is a redox reactionOxidation the removal of an electron or electrons from a substanceReduction the addition of an electron or electrons to a substanceRedox reactions occur in pairs oxidation and reduction because when a substance becomes oxidized and loses an electron half reaction that electron cannot exist alone in the solution so some other substance must be reduced2What happens to a molecule that is reducedReduction the addition of an electron or electrons to a substance electron acceptor3What happens to a molecule that is oxidizedOxidation the removal of an electron or electrons from a substance electron donor4What does an electron carrier doAn electron carrier allows electron donors and acceptors to interact with the coenzyme as the intermediary5How can NAD act as an electron carrier Electrons removed from the electron donor can reduce NAD to NADH6How can NADH act as an electron carrierNADH can then donate electrons to the electron acceptor to be converted back to NAD 7What are examples of short term energy storage moleculesATP and derivatives of Coenzyme A acetylCoA is one of many are short term storage molecules ATP is the most important energyrich phosphate compound Coenzyme A derivatives are important short term storage for anaerobic organisms particularly those that rely on fermentation8What are examples of long term energy storage moleculesHow is each considered an energy storage moleculeGlycogenPolyBhydroxybutyrateOther polyhydroxyalkanoates In the absence of an external energy source a cell can break down these polymers to make new cell material or to supply the very low amount of energy called maintenance energy needed to maintain cell integrity when it is in a nongrowing stateElemental Sulphur can also store energy from the oxidation of H2S by Sulpher chemolithotrophs9Where does a chemoorganotroph get its energy and electronsChemoorganotroph An organism that obtains its energy from the oxidation of organic compounds through the process of fermentation aerobic respiration or anaerobic respirationFermentation ATP is produced using substratelevel phosphorylation The ATP is synthesized directly from energyrich intermediates during steps in the catabolism of the fermentable substrateAerobic Respiration Oxidation using O2 as the terminal electron acceptorAnaerobic Respiration Oxidation using other acceptors under anoxic conditions10Where does a chemolithotroph get its energy and electronsChemolithotroph Organism able to use inorganic chemicals as electron donors primarily through aerobic respiration but some are capable of anaerobic respirationExamples of relevant inorganic electron donors include H2S hydrogen gas H2 FE2 and NH311What type of phosphorylation occurs in glycolysis to make ATP
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