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Micro Exam 5 Study Guide

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Biological Sciences
BIOL 2051
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Diversity1How old is the Eartha45 billion years old2What is used to date the Earth to be that oldaOldest mineral zircon44 billion years old and has water marks on top3Evidence for microbial life are found in rocks that date back35billion years ago4What are stromatolitesAt what time during Earths history were all beaches likely covered in stromatolitesaStromatolitesfossilized microbial mats consisting of layers of filamentous prokaryotes and trapped sediment Chloroflexusi25 billion years ago all beaches would have been covered in stromatolites5What event occurred between 2228 billion years agoWhat effects did it have on the planetWhat kind of microorganisms were involveda2228 billion years ago OXYGENIC phototrophic cyanobacteria appearediThere was a shift from an anoxic to an oxic environment 1Banded iron formations2Ozone O3 layer formed6How did the banded iron formations formaBanded Iron Formationslayers of ferric Fe3 iron oxides formed by ferrous Fe2 iron reacting with oxygen produced by the cyanobacteria 7Was the first cell prokaryotic or eukaryoticaPROKARYOTIC CELL8What theory explains the origin of the eukaryotic mitochondria and chloroplastaEndosymbiosis Theorymitochondria and chloroplasts of today came from the stable incorporation of a chemoorganotroph and a prokaryotic cyanobacterium into the same cell9Forming the primitive mitochondria there was symbiotic uptake of a cell with what type of metabolism aA CHEMOORGANOTROPH A H2 producing bacteria10Forming the primitive chloroplast there was symbiotic uptake of what kind of cellaCYANOBACTERIA oxygenic phototroph11Provide support for the mitochondria and chloroplasts having bacterial originsaMitochondria and ChloroplastsiHave their own genomesiiContain their own ribosomes170S like ProkaryotesaNot 80S like Eukaryotes2Antibiotics are effective3rRNA sequences are similar to prokaryotic rRNAbEukaryotic nuclear cenomes have bacterially derived sequences12Describe the hydrogen hypothesisaWhat organism was the host iArchaeahost that is dependent on H2 as an energy sourcebWhich organisms were the symbiontsiA H2 producing Bacteriaaerobic respiring cell gives rise to the mitochondriaiiCyanobacteriaoxygenic prototrophgives rise to the chloroplastcWhat metabolic terms autotroph heterotrophy phototroph chemoorganotroph chemolithotroph can be used to describe the host and each symbiontiArchaeachemoorganotroph heterotrophiiH2 producing Bacteriachemolithotroph iiiCyanobacteriaphototroph autotroph13The sequence of what nucleic acid is compared to determine the evolutionary relationship between organismsaSSU small subunit RNAsequencing the 16S prokaryotes and 18S eukaryotes small subunit of the ribosomeiChange of the 16S indicates that the two organisms are probably different species 16S IS SLOW TO CHANGE14Phylogenetic trees represent what type of relationshipaEvolutionary relationships of organisms15Answer the following questions using the phylogenetic tree belowaTo which organism is B most closely relatediCthey share a common ancestorbTo which organism is C most closely relatediD and Ethey share a more recent common ancestorcWhich organism is the most recent descent from the ancestor at internal node 2 iBdWhich organism could be the outgroupiANode 2
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