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BIOL 3040 Final Study Guide (got 93% on the test)

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Biological Sciences
BIOL 3040
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BIOL 3040Final Exam Study GuideDescribe the process of artificial selectionoArtificial selection is the process of humandirected selective breeding aimed at producing a desired set of traits in the selected speciesoGrow crop choose plants with desirable traits reproduce top plants with each otherList and describe the three conditions necessary for natural selection to occur within a populationoVariation Individuals of a population must differ from one anotheroInheritance Some of these differences are inherited by offspring from their parentsoDifferential reproductive success Individuals with certain traits are more successful than others at surviving and reproducing in their environmentMutation is a major source of variation some trait of interest changes over time natural selection sorts on phenotypic differences natural selection characteristic of populationsWhat are the parts or features of a phylogenyonodes branch points where the tree splits represents common ancestororoot the common lineage from which all species indicated on the tree are derivedoAny node can be rotated and still be accurateooutgroup a taxon related to the groups of interest but that branched off earlier in evolutionary historyosister taxa taxa derived from the same nodeopolytomy a node with more than two branches arising from it shows uncertaintyomonophyletic group all descendants of a groups most recent common ancestor forms a cladeopolyphyletic group does not include a common ancestor nor all its descendants not used anymore oparaphyletic group one that contains the groups most common ancestor but not all of the descendantsorooted trees the common lineage from which all the species on the tree are derived is indicated at the base of a treeounrootedtrees do not fully indicate direction of time
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