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[BIOL 1201] - Final Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam (92 pages long!)


Department
Biological Sciences
Course Code
BIOL 1201
Professor
E William Wischusen
Study Guide
Final

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LSU
BIOL 1201
FINAL EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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EXAM 2
Chemical Reactions
Occur anytime two or more atoms, ions, or molecules collide in such a way
that they produce a new substance
Must physically run into each other with sufficient force and in the right
orientation
Reactions go faster with heat
Molecules move faster when hit with heat, thus speeding reactions up
All chemical reactions are governed by the Laws of Thermodynamics
First Law:
Energy can neither be created nor destroyed, only converted from one
form to another
If the reactants have greater energy than the products, then energy
must be released
If less, energy must be put in to make it happen
Second Law:
When converting energy from one form to another, the amount of useful
energy decreases
Well never be able to do these energetic conversions 100%
efficiently, well always lose some amount of energy in the form of
heat normally
Types of Chemical Reactions
Spontaneous
Release energy
Can occur without outside help (energy)
Spontaneous (-ΔG)
Exergonic
Non-spontaneous
Requires free energy
Can occur only with outside help (energy)
Non Spontaneous (+ΔG)
Endergonic
Chart goes up because energy is required
In all non-spontaneous reactions: ∆G+ (increases) endergonic therefore the
question of interest to us: is ∆G (+ or -) ?? (Enthalpy increases, entropy
decreases)
As enthalpy decreases, entropy increases (spontaneous)
Changes in Free Energy (G)
Energy that is free and available to do work
Amount of energy released or required when/for reactions/processes to
occur
G = ∆H - T∆S
G = change in free energy (if spontaneous, it is negative)
H = change in enthalpy
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T = temperature (K) Kelvin (always positive)
S = change in entropy
Diver on top of the dock has more free energy, less stable, and greater work
capacity
When diving: less free energy, more stable, less work capacity
Figure 8.5
Change of physical location changes free energy
Free Energy and Chemical Reactions
Spontaneous
Release free energy (Negative Delta G - exergonic)
Non-spontaneous
Require free energy or else it cannot occur (positive delta G -
endergonic)
Top: Spontaneous
Bottom: Non-Spontaneous
ΔG=ΔH-TΔS
G = Free Energy
If ΔG is positive, its non spontaneous
ΔG is negative if it’s a spontaneous process
H = Enthalpy (heat energy not the temperature)
How much heat COULD be released… not how hot it is
Positive if it took up heat energy
Negative if it released heat
T = Temperature (K)
Are no negatives
S = Entropy (measure of disorder)
How complex a molecule is
LOWER DISORDER MEANS GREATER FREE ENERGY
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