Respiration Review WorksheetExam
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Cellular Respiration Review Worksheet
Exergonic reactions ________ energy. (release or require?)
Endergonic reactions _______ energy. (release or require?)
ATP (Adenosine TriPhosphate) - energy currency of the cell
ATP is hydrolyzed to ADP and inorganic phosphate, releasing approximately 7.3
kcal/mol of energy (= -7.3 or +7.3?)
NADH and FADH2 - reducing power
Creatine Phosphate - high energy phosphagen store in ____________
Arginine Phosphate - high energy phosphagen store in _____________
The high energy phosphagen store is used to regenerate __________
Catabolic processes – produce(?) or require(?) ATP and reducing power
Anabolic processes – produce(?) or require(?) ATP and reducing power
Metabolism converts molecules in small steps, each catalyzed by a specific enzyme.
In the cytoplasm glucose is oxidized to pyruvate. Depending on the availability
of oxygen, there are two pathways for the further metabolism of pyruvate:
In the _________ of adequate oxygen, glucose is fermented in the cytoplasm
to lactic acid (animals) or ethanol (plants and yeast [and sometimes in animals, e.g.,
cold-adapted goldfish]). Fermentation to lactate and ethanol regenerates NAD so that
glycolysis can continue.
Anaerobic glycolysis results in the net production of 2 ATP. (3 ATP are produced
when glycogen is the starting material.)
In the _________ of adequate oxygen pyruvate is channeled into the Krebs
cycle (in mitochondria), being converted to acetyl CoA and CO2. Because pyruvate is a
3-carbon compound and glucose is a 6-carbon compound, there are two "turns" of the
Krebs cycle per glucose molecule. CO2, ATP and reducing power, NADH and FADH2
are produced in the TCA/Krebs Cycle.
Oxidative phosphorylation: The NADH (from the cytoplasm and mitochondria)
and FADH2, in the mitochondrion, move energetically down the electron transport
chain. It is at this step that oxygen is used to produce H2O. The theoretical
maximum ATP production is: 3 ATP produced per NADH; 2 ATP produced per FADH2.
The reducing power is used to drive and maintain the proton gradient (high
concentrations of protons in the intermembrane space – with the matrix having a higher
pH). The free energy of the proton gradient is used to drive the synthesis of ATP which
is an ex-? or end-? ___ergonic reaction catalyzed by the enzyme ______.
Chemiosmosis is the movement of protons down their concentration gradient to provide
the energy for ATP synthesis.
Under aerobic conditions the actual net production of ATP molecules produced
per molecule of glucose is ___ to _____.
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