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Final

BIOL 1201 Final: Complete and Comprehensive 46 Page Final Exam GuidePremium


Department
Biological Sciences
Course Code
BIOL 1201
Professor
Moroney, James
Study Guide
Final

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BIOL 1201- Lecture 1- Science
Science:
Natural explanations for observable events developed by use of the scientific method
Scientific Method:
1. Observation
2. Hypothesis
3. Test Hypothesis
4. Conclusion
Observation: A girl and a guy sit next to each other in an empty movie theatre.
Hypothesis: they are: friends, dating, relatives, or strangers and the guy is a creep.
Test Hypothesis: throw popcorn, flirt with one to see reaction, turn movie off.
Conclusion: findings of experiment
Diversity and Classification of Organism:
Important Characteristics:
oProkaryotic vs. Eukaryotic
Prokaryotic: lack nucleus, other organelles, small (1-10 micrometers)
Eukaryotic: DNA packaged in nucleus, possess other organelles such as
mitochondria. Large (10-100 micrometers)
oAerobic vs. Anaerobic metabolism
Aerobic: cells require oxygen to break down compounds and produce
energy
Anaerobic: cells break down compounds and produce energy in the
absence of oxygen
oAutotrophic vs. Heterotrophic feeding
Autotrophic: produce energy from chemical energy source, primarily by
photosynthesis
Heterotrophic: produce energy from autotrophic organisms
BIOL 1201- Lecture 2- Basic Chemistry
Basics of Biological Elements

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Atomic number: number of protons
Mass number: sum of protons and neutrons in a nucleus, protons & neutrons weigh ~1.7
X10-24 grams, electron 1/2000th of that
Atomic Weight: mass of the atom, approximately the mass number
Isotopes: same atomic number, different atomic weight.
oUnstable isotopes lose energy: radioactive.
NATURAL CARBON ISOTOPES (At. No.= 6)
ISOTOPE ABUNDANCE
C-12 98.8%
C-13 1.1%
C-14 trace (radioactive) C-14 is NATURALLY OCCURRING
oAll have same number of protons, electrons, but have different number of
neutrons. All very similar. Used a lot in biology.
oWe eat C14 through plants, once we die the C14 ingestion stops. 5000-year half-
life, dead samples can be dated using this.
NATURAL POTASSIUM ISOTOPES (At. No. = 19)
ISOTOPE ABUNDANCE
K-39 93.3%
K-40 0.0012% (radioactive)
K-41 6.88%
Electron Configuration and Chemical Properties
Electrons fill sequential “shells” around atoms
Shell 1- two electrons
Shell 2- eight electrons
Shell 3- eight electrons
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