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Louisiana State University
Communication Studies
CMST 2061

Chapter 8DifferencebetweenLeaderManagerThe managers role is to continue the status quo as efficiently as possibleManagers generally do the telling eg This is the way we want you to do the jobThe managers primary responsibility is to organize laborManagers tend to be reactive to new information in an effort to maintain the status quoThe manager will see the future through the prism of the past and presentManagers tend to use legitimate power or power that is officially granted to them by the organizationleadership involves looking for the next development or opportunity for growth and change that might lead to increased organizational growth profitability and market shareleaders generally do theselling eg If we were to change this process how would you do things differently leaders primary responsibility is to inspire laborleaders tend to be proactive in that they use the untested and uncertain nature of new information as an opportunity for growththe leader will see the present through the futureleaders who use referent power or the ability to get followers to act because the followers like the leader and believe in his or her vision LeadershipstylesTraitsituationalexchangeorgsasleadersappliedincludingspecifictheorieswithineachstyleTrait Leadership Perspective people either possess the attributes of a leader or they do notleadership qualities are part of a persons personality and therefore research on leadership must always account for personality traits1 trait of narcissism2Trait of charismagreat man theory of leadership people have studied royalty and others in positions of power to determine what qualities they possess that make them effective leadersSituational Leadership Perspective there is no such thing as a born leader rather people act as leaders depending on the situationThe situational leadership theory of Paul Hersey and Kenneth Blanchard assumes that any leadership style should be based on both the employees psychological maturity ie degree of self efficacy and willingness to acceptresponsibility and job maturity ie degree of skills and knowledge of the taskFielders contingency theoryholds that the degree of success of any leader is contingent on the situational demands and the amount of influence and control the leader has in the given the situationBasically in situations that are in the extreme very successful or very unsuccessful outcomes with no middle option you would want a taskoriented leader When the situation is moderate in gravity moderately successful or moderately unsuccessful an employeefocused leader would be more effectiveExchange Approaches to Leadership perspective that looks at the quality of the relationship between the leader and subordinates in the organization to determine leadership effectivenessLeadermember exchange theory LMX focuses on the quality of relational linkages between both the superior aka leader and subordinates aka member as a major influence in determining effective leadershipLMX theory assumes that leaders behave differently to individual members of the organization based on the interpersonal nature of each relationshipA highquality link is characterized by high trust respect and an overall positive tone whereas a lowquality link is characterized by mistrust lack of respect and an overall negative toneTransformational leadership focuses on empowering individual workers and helping the organization adapt to changes in both internal eg new technology being implemented and external eg changes in the market community or society at large environmentsOrganization as Industry Leaders Fortune 500 list experience aboveaverage growth and financial return over a 20year period and reputation of being an innovative organization within its fieldTraits 1Bias for Action 2 Close to the customer 3 autonomy and entrepreneurship 4Productivity through people 5 Hands on value driven 6 Stick to the knitting 7 Simple form lean staff 8Simultaneous loosetight propertiesApplied Leadership It has become common practice in business to promote employees who are successful at what they doPeter Principlepeople rise to their level of incompetence This is a principle of hierarchiology and holds that organizational members are promoted to their highest level of competenceRelationshipsfromMoodleDimensionsofrelationshipspowerstagessuperiorsubordinaterelationshipspeerharassmentPower and status refers to the ability of an individual to exert influence over othersPeople draw power fromReferent power viewed as the extent to which a person is liked by othersExpert power extent to which a person is perceived as possessing knowledgeLegitimate power influence that stems from a code or standard of conductCoercive power extent to which a person is capable of punishing or with holding benefitsReward power extent to which a person is capable of awarding benefitsStages of RelationshipsKnapp suggests that costs and rewards are the general motivation behind the establishment of relationshipsRelationshipComing Together1 Initiationdevelop awareness of the other party2 Experimentingbegin to engage in small talk3 Intensifyingdevelop a greater degree of closeness and start to commit to activities outside of their assigned duties4 Integratingrelationship continues to develop the relational partners5 Bondingthe relational partners have made a public commitment to the relationshipComing Apart1 Differentiatingbegin to focus on the ways in which we differ2 Circumscribingfewer topics are raised for fear of conflict3 Stagnatingthe partners do not act to repair the relationship4 Avoidancethe relational partners begin to view the relationships as unpleasant5 Terminatingoccurs when the partner decide to put a permanent end to the relationshipThe relationship a person has with his or her supervisor is the single most important relationship a person has in the organizationOpennessthe supervisorysubordinate relationship is defined as the willingness of both parties to be willing receptive listenersUpward distortionsubordinates intentionally distorting information in their communication with supervisorsSemantic information distancethe gap in information and understanding that exists between supervisors and subordinatesUpward influencesubordinates perceptions of how influential their supervisor is with upper managementrelationships among peers in organization can take on 2 formsOrganizationalindividuals come together because of assigned dutiesPersonalmay develop because of similar interests and viewpoints as well as to meet the social and emotional needs of the relational partnersSexual HarassmentWhy does it happen in the work place1 Attraction2 Power
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