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Notes For EXAM 3 GEOLOGY

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Department
Geology
Course
GEOL 1001
Professor
All Professors
Semester
Fall

Description
Chapter11EarthquakesEarthquakeThevibrationoftheEarthproducedbytherapidreleaseofenergyEnergyreleasedradiatesinalldirectionsfromitssourcethefocusincenterofcrustEnergyisintheformofwavesmovesawayfromfocusSensitiveinstrumentsaroundtheworldrecordtheeventEpicenterpointonsurfaceofEarthdirectlyabovethefocusEarthquakesandFaultsMovementsthatproduceearthquakesareusuallyassociatedwithfaultsElasticreboundRocksarebothsidesofanexistingfaultaredeformedbytectonicforcesRocksbendandstoreelasticenergyFrictionalresistanceholdingtherockstogetherisovercomeEarthquakemechanismSlippageattheweakestpointthefocusoccursVibrationsearthquakesoccurasthedeformedrockspringbacktoitsoriginalshapeelasticreboundEarthquakesmostoftenoccuralongexistingfaultswheneverthefrictionalforcesonthefaultsurfacesareovercomeRocksdeformelasticallythenreboundduringanearthquakeruptureStressbuildsuntilitexceedsrockstrengthwhenstressreachescertainlimitwehaveanearthquakeRuptureexpandscircularlyonfaultplanesendingoutseismicwavesBecausetherearemanyvariablesateachpotentialearthquakesitestressmaybuildmorequicklyorlessquicklyandthestrengthofthefaultmayvaryovertimecausingearthquakestooccuratvaryingtimesandwithvaryingamountsofslipForeshocksandAftershocksAdjustmentsthatfollowamajorearthquakeoftengeneratessmallerearthquakescalledaftershocksSmallearthquakesforeshocksoftenprecedeamajorearthquakebydaysorinsomecasesbyasmuchasseveralyearsSanAndreasisthemoststudiedfaultsystemintheworldDisplacementoccursalongdiscretesegments100to200kilometerslongSomeportionsexhibitslowgradualdisplacementknownasfaultcreepOthersegmentsregularlyslipproducingsmallearthquakesStillothersegmentsstoreelasticenergyorhundredsofyearsbeforerupturingingreatearthquakesStickslipmotionGreaterearthquakesshouldoccuraboutevery50to200yearsalongthesesectionsSeismologyThestudyofearthquakewavesseismologydatesbackalmost2000yearstotheChineseSeismographsareinstrumentsthatrecordseismicwavesRecordsthemovementoftheEarthinrelationtoastationarymassonarotatingdrumormagnetictapeMorethanonetypeofseismographyisneededtorecordbothverticalandhorizontalgroundmotionRecordsobtainedarecalledseismogramsTypesofseismicwavesSurfacewavesTravelalongouterpartofearthonlyalongthesurfaceoftheearthHavecomplexmotionCausemostdestructionExhibitgreatestamplitudeandslowestvelocityWaveshavethegreatestperiodstimeintervalbetweencrestsOftenreferredtoaslongwavesorLwaves
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