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Hist 2055 Study Guide Edited And Reposted

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HIST 2055
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American History Study Guide Exam 2IDs1McCulloch v Marylanda case between the Maryland state bank and the ndBaltimore Branch of the 2 Bank of the US under President McCulloch In this case the state of Maryland attempted to overturn or interfere with the execution of the federal government by passing a tax on the profits to of the national branch bank of Baltimore to downsize their profit Marshall ruled that no state government can interfere with rulings of the national government see above Important because it established these two principles 1The Constitution grants to Congress implied powers for implementing the Constitutions express powers in order to create a functional national government2 State action may not impede valid constitutional exercises of power by the Federalgovernment1Missouri Compromisecompromise created to settle conflict over whether the state of Missouri would enter the Union as a free state or a slave state Missouri wanted to enter as a slave state The North was opposed to this idea and took it as a front for Missouri to do this however the South was happy It matters because in the Senate there is already a balance 5050 between slave states legality of slavery and Free states slavery prohibited Raised the issue of sectional balance because depending on if it were free or slave it would give one faction power in congress Also significant because under this statehood bill in 1820 Maine was admitted to the Union as a Free State and no further slave states would be carved out of the remaining LA territory lying North of the southern border of Missouri 2Northwest OrdinanceIn 1787 Congress of Confederation issued a land ordinance that was essential for settling conflicts about Northwest Territory Northwestern states had all laid claim to this land because it was the strategic waterway leading to the Mississippi River it was a tributary The Ordinance declared that the Great Rivers Ohio MS etc should be forever free of tolls and other obstacles to navigation The idea of the ordinance was that the land belonged to all the states and should be free of toll The ordinance also banned slavery in the area3Monroe Doctrine P roclamation in 1823 by President James Monroe Basically it warned European nations not to get involved in political matters in Central and South America The Doctrine was intended to show that the United States was the only country that could influence such political matters Further several countries in South American had recently undergone revolutions against their European colonial owners and ended up with republican governments The United States agreed with their political philosophy and did not want to see those newly free nations become European colonies again Defining moment in foreign policy The doctrine put forward that the New World and the Old World were to remain distinctly separate spheres of influence for they were composed of entirely separate and independent nations4 Maysville Road Veto The Maysville Road veto was a famousby US vetoPresident Andrew Jackson that is one of the most important events in the history of federalism in the United States The incident took place in 1830 The Maysville Road bill provided for the federal government to buy 150000 in stock in a private company to fund a 60mile road connecting the towns of Maysville and Lexington an extension of the Cumberland and National RoadsUS Congress passed theThe bill with a 103 to 87 vote in the House of Representatives Jackson vetoed the bill arguing that federal subsidies for internal improvements that were located wholly within a single US state were unconstitutional Also Jackson said that he did not oppose the road but just wanted the state to build it not the federal government Following this veto were seven additional vetoes of public works projects including roads and canals This dealt a blow to the American System of Henry Clay Many historians have also concluded that Jackson acted out of pure hatred for anything having to do with Henry Clay his archrival Therefore out of spite he vetoed the bill5 year without a summer in 1816 the largest volcanic eruption Tambora the clouds drifted north which caused colder temperatures which reduced crop production raised prices 30000 settlers fled Alabama bw 18171819 due to crop failure Especially problem after 22 years of war Europe finds itself without food even from the US16Panic of 1819 The first major financial crisis in the United States which occurred during the end of the Era of Good Feelings Brought on by sharply falling cotton prices declining demand for American exports and reckless western land speculationThe panic marked the end of the economic expansion that had followed the War of 1812 and ushered in new financial policies that would shape economic development7 Panic of 1837The Panic of 1837 was a financial crisis in the United States built 1on a speculative fever The end of the Second Bank of the United States had produced a period of runaway inflation but on May 10 1837 in New York City every bank began to accept payment only in specie gold and silver coinage forcing a dramatic deflationarybacklash This was based on the assumption by former president Andrew Jackson that government was selling land for state bank notes of questionable value The Panic was followed by a fiveyear depression with the failure of banks and thenrecordhigh unemployment levels8Three fifths compromiseJohns Adams regretted compromise over slavery but the govt more important than slaves They came up with the 35 compromise for
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