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MGT3513 Class Notes (got the best grade in class)

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MGT 3513
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TeamandMultipartyNegotiationsITEAMNEGOTIATIONSTeamNegotiations many more parties involved all teams involve groups but not all groups are teams People that make up a team accept some common goal or objective must have coordination and communicationACharacteristics MultipleRoles division of labor that occurs accept that negotiation is to complex for one person to handle ie technical expertise chief negotiator researcher etcInfluence what happens within the team can influence the negotiation process and the outcomesPerformance teams tend to outperform individuals in integrative negotiations teams are more effective at exploiting integrative potential maybe because more info is shared about interests and priorities interest effect found when even only one party is a team No real evidence that shows that teams do better in competitive negotiations even though people think that teams do better team efficacy effectBChallengesFacingTeams1ChoosingTeammatesNegotiationExpertise team member who understands the negotiation process streamline preparations identify interests and issues aware of negotiation biases knows how to chose and implement appropriate negotiating strategyTechnicalExpertise can set priorities and understand some of the complexities that need to go into final agreementInterpersonalSkills effective communicator help establish rapport with other side helpful in developing trust 2HowManyontheTeam About 5 people after this conformity pressures start to take hold3InformationProcessing benefit of team is dividing labor not everyone has to be responsible for everything Problem is when you divide labor youre eliminating redundancies in what people know If an issue comes up theres not more than one person to address it How do you overcome this Teams should prepare together for negotiations so that everybody on the team is aware of what other people are supposed to knowIIMULTIPARTYNEGOTIATIONSMultipartyNegotiationsmultilateral bargaining any time you have a group of 3 or more negotiators each representing their own interests who attempt to resolve perceived differences of interests Ex Conflict with roommatesAIncreasedComplexitiesthe negotiations are bigger Adding more people increases the complexities Relationship isnt necessarily linear Breakdown more difficult to get agreements with multiparty negotiations more likely to have impassesBInformationalandComputationalComplexitybecause you have more people you often have more issues and more perspectives on the issues Also more total information Keeping track of it all becomes a major problem Managing that information is one of the main challenges of multiparty negotiationCSocialComplexitynegotiation relationship changes from one on one negotiation to a small group Important thing you have to figure out is what is the motivational orientation of the group members Are they more cooperative in their approach to one another or are they behaving more individualistic Cooperative more trust more info sharing Individualistic more protective and more defensive in dealing with one another Group dynamics come into playParties compare themselves to one another Also see pressures toward group conformity esp true where you have a power imbalance among the negotiators If more equal more info exchange unequal opposite is true willing to share opinions until high powered person speaks up social comparison becomes impt and sometimes pressures toward group conformityCommunicationBreakdowns very common in this type of environment Some dont speak up enough More people talking some of the info is inaccurate Some members might not be receiving the info appropriately amplified when there are more people involved Ex The game Telephone Dealing with it is to try to break away from the group causing a coalitionPrivateCaucusingCoalitionFormationpeople break away and form their own group and selfselect into private meetings with people assumed to have similar interests This occurs anytime 2 or more group members join together to achieve their objectives without including other group membersPrinciplebenefits 1 you start to eliminate some of the social complexity 2 Real source of negotiating power weak members can gain power by joining with more powerful negotiators Issues How many people should be in the coalition You only want as many people needed for you to achieve your objectives Coalitions can be really unstable After you form a coalition you have to figure out how to maintain it Esp problematic if the negotiations involve parties with lots of different amounts of powerResearch finds that to try to maintain a coalition is to get exclusive promise from the members of the coalition and this decreases the likelihood that theyll jump shipDProceduralComplexityNegotiations tend to take longer and its unclear how the negotiation should proceed Who goes first Whose turn is it More attention given to managing the process How are decisions going to be made People rely on votingVotingandMajorityRuleeach party in a multiparty negotiation casts a vote and the majority rules Problems reliance on majority rule decreases the likelihood that the parties will achieve integrative outcomes This is because if everyone casts a vote and selects their favorite choice among the choice of outcomes it ignores strengths of preference Strengthsofpreference whats lost when voting ignoring opportunities to logroll It doesnt resolve underlying conflicts it just suppresses them The parties that lose can be quite dissatisfied with the outcome This becomes a problem later on whenagreements need to be implemented So whats recommended instead is unanimity Settlements that incorporate the underlying interests of more of the negotiatorsEStrategicComplexityworry about not just yourself and one other party but maybe 2 or 3 other negotiators Multiple relationships are in play during negotiations Use one approach for one party and another approach for another partyFormulatingTradeoffsLogrolling sometimes referred to as reciprocal logrolling tradeoff between 2 people benefitingin the same way Multiparty negotiations circularlogrolling This requires each group member to offer another member a concession on one issue while receiving a concession from a different group member on a different issue Ex Gift exchanges where you pick out of a hat Coalitions typically form between people who have positive relationships with one anotherKeyStrategiesforMultipartyNegotiations Knowwhowillbeatthetable Know who will be negotiating Very important in terms of determining possible coalition formations Normally formed by people who like and know each other Managetheinformation Have to have some way to keep track of everything People normally create a matrix People in the negotiations are in the rows issues they represent are in the columns Make sure you know who is taking what position so you dont get lost in the complexities of information sharing Usebrainstormingwiselybrainwriting Groups dont always do a great job coming up with ideas Groups have fewer and lower quality ideas than individuals acting alone Instead of brainstorming they use brainwriting People are asked individually to come up with possible solutions for certain issues They write them down and then discuss them Developandassignprocessroles Several are often thought to be unnecessary Timekeeper process manager person who clues people in when its their turn to talk someone who has primary responsibility for recording all of the information Stayatthetable Keep everyone together you are more likely to get integrative behavior Striveforequalparticipation Esp important for low power members of the negotiation Avoidtheagreementbias Tendency in multiparty neg for some groupthink to take over Avoid the equal shares bias form of the split the difference approach just with more people Avoidsequentialbargaining Even more pressure to just deal with one issue at a time Dont want to just go one issue at a time because you are missing out on opportunities for equal tradeoffsTacitandENegotiationsITACITNEGOTIATIONSAExplicitvsTacitNegotiationExplicitNegotiationsformal agreement that is reached usually in person Verbal presentation of demandsrationales everything is very explicit Together one on one manner making verbal demands for the other side and explaining in a verbal manner why theyve taken their positions and rationalesTacitNegotiationsnegotiators are interdependent with respect to outcomes but make independent decisions Your fate is determined by the actions that you take and the actions of others People can behave competitively or cooperatively Business orgs our welfare often depends on the actions of othersBPrisonersdilemmaandsocialdilemma Sometimes you have situations where peoples pursuit of individual interests can lead to collective disaster when this happens it is what is called social dilemmas Called dilemmas because they involve risky choicesPrisonersdilemma2 person social dilemma
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