Exam 2 Study Guide

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Louisiana State University
Nutrition and Food Services
NFS 2000

FDSCExam2StudyGuideChapter 5 ConceptsSimple Sugars composed of carbon hydrogen and oxygenOrganic Alcohol molecule attached to an OH groupMonosaccharides the building blocks of all other carbohydrates Disaccharides two carbohydrate units joined togetherMonosaccharidesTrisoses contain 3 carbonsPentoses contain 5 carbonsHexoses contain 6 carbons the most important in foodGlucose fructose galactoseall share the same chemical formula CHOCan exist as either a Fischer projection molecule a straight chain of carbons or as a Ring structuremost common in solutionStructural features depend on the location of functional groups and influence functional propertiesExglucose and fructose are both hexosesGlucose has a 6 member ring an aldoseFructose has a 5 member ring a ketoseThis is why fructose is sweeter and more soluble than glucoseDisaccharidesMade up of two monosaccharides bonded together by a glycosidic bond3 most common disaccharidesSucrose glucose fructose common table sugarLactose glucosegalactose milk sugarMaltose glucoseglucose common breakdown product from starchFunctional properties of sugarsAlcohol OH important for solubility and sweetnessPage 1 of 30FDSCExam2StudyGuideThe OH group has a great influence on sweetness and other functional properties because of the way it can participate in hydrogen bondingCarbonyl C0 important for reducing activity and Maillard Browning for colorflavor developmentReducing sugarsContain a carbonyl groupAll monosaccharides arereducing sugarsDextrose equivalent DE indication of the amount of freehydrolyzed glucose which is an indication of solubility reducing action viscosity etc Pure dextrose has a DE of 100 while starch has a value of 0The higher the DE the mire soluble and greater reducing ability of the sugarBrowningTwo important browning reactions1Maillard Reaction2CaramelizationBoth are Nonenzymatic Browningbecause enzymes are not involves in the reactionsMaillard Browningcomplex series of reactions that requires a reducing sugar and amino acids in foodsthe browning of foods as a result of the Maillard reactionintermediate products pyrazineswhich tend to have pleasant aromas and flavorsend products brown pigments called melanoidinsirreversible and results in darkening of foodunpleasant flavors and aromas can develop as well230FResponsible for both positive and negative quality attributesGood in baked goods the brown color and flavor productsPage 2 of 30
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