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OCS 1005- Final Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam ( 41 pages long!)


Department
Oceanography & Coastal Sciences
Course Code
OCS 1005
Professor
M.Sutor
Study Guide
Final

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LSU
OCS 1005
FINAL EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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Introduction to Life Processes
All living organisms require energy
Consumers- get energy from consuming other organisms
Producers- convert energy from the sun or chemicals into organic matter
-photosynthesis- plants are using energy from the sun to combine CO2 and H2O and O2,
carbs are organic
-chemosynthesis- light energy not necessary, combine CO2 and hydrogen sulfide,
breaking bonds allow reaction to take place
Photosynthesis- The process by which carbon dioxide and water are converted into
carbohydrates and oxygen using energy from the sun
- dominant process of converting energy to organic matter (carbs)
- Organisms use the pigment chlorophyll to convert photons from the sun into carbs
- Phytoplankton, some bacteria, seaweeds
- gC/m^2/yr
- measure carbon general measure of photosynthesis
Chemosynthesis- conversion of energy in simple carbon molecules to carbs
-takes place at hydrothermal vents and in the sediments
-bacteria
Sun-Producers-Consumers-some energy may be lost to place
Coral reefs and kelp bed have the highest net primary productivity and the open ocean
has the lowest
Energy from the sun or chemicals can be stored and passed on to other trophic levels
Stored as the form of carbs
Energy is reduced by a factor of 10 for each trophic level, every time it is transferred
Trophic level- small to big,
Food Webs- A group of organisms linked by different feeding relationships in which
often consumers at each trophic level can consume a number of different organisms such
that trophic transfer does not occur in a simply, straight chain or line
Biogeochemical Cycles
Atoms and molecules move between living and non-living entities
The pathways and rates of movement of these molecules are termed as biogeochemical
cycles
Important chemical elements; carbon and nitrogen
Carbon cycle- largest biogeochemical cycle
-most important building block of life
- Carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and it is highly soluble, dissolves in the ocean which
is taken up by phytoplankton and used for photosynthesis the resulting carbs passed thru
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the trophic levels which then they use the carbs and pass on to other trophic levels but
they also respire giving off CO2 as they breathe, deposition matter can be some of the
fossil fuel matter we find around the globe, CO2 also be sequestered by calcium and used
by organisms that have shells, and sink to the bottom and in the sediments, returned to
land uplifted or pulled down to the mantle near convergence zone, or into the atmosphere
by organisms
The basic steps of carbon cycle from the quiz- Carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is
dissolved in the ocean and taken up by phytoplankton through photosynthesis. The
carbon is transferred through the food web to higher levels where it is respired again as
carbon dioxide. Carbon can also be transferred to the sediments by decomposition and
burial of shells made of calcium carbonate. some of this carbon can be uplifted to the
land in the form of limestone and then returned to the atmosphere through processes on
land. In the end, carbon can be returned to the atmosphere via respiration of marine
organisms or land processes and the cycle can start over.
Nitrogen cycle-
- Nitrogen must first be ‘fixed’ to make it biologically available (bound to oxygen or
hydrogen)
- Organic forms of nitrogen
Ammonia, NH4
Nitrate NO3
Nitrite NO2 ^-2
- Run off from the land (fertilizer, plant materials), enters upper water by upwelling,
movement from deep water to surface, dissolving of Atmospheric nitrogen which
becomes dissolved in the waters (fixation takes place by bacteria)
- Nitrogen can enter the ocean through runoff or from the atmosphere. Nitrogen can be
brought to the surface from deeper water through upwelling. Bacteria fix the nitrogen
and producers can then use it to build organic matter and pass through other trophic
levels. Nitrogen may settle to the bottom through decomposition or be released again
to the atmosphere.
- Can leave the system when denitrifying bacteria act upon it and release nitrogen gas
or when dead organisms sink to the bottom and become buried in the sediments
Phosphorus- important nutrient used for cell building,
Silica- critical for some shell building organisms
Iron- necessary for photosynthesis and nitrogen fixation, though not in large quantities
Limiting Factors and Zonation
Any Factor necessary for life or growth that is present in the least favorable amount is the
limiting factor
-light (photosynthesis), limited based on depth b/c light is absorbed near surface
-Temp
-Nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorus, iron, silica) (carbon never limiting)
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