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Philosophy 2020 Test 2 Review (highest grade in class)

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Department
Philosophy
Course
PHIL 2020
Professor
All Professors
Semester
Spring

Description
Philosophy 2020 Test 2 ReviewPhilosophy and Ethical Theory What you should knowTechnicaldefinitionofphilosophyoThestudyofideasaboutknowledgetruththenatureandmeaningoflifeetcotwoancientGreektermsphilialoveandsophiawisdomLiterallythetermphilosophymeansloveofwisdomoPhilosophyisthewellreasonedinquiryintoandattempttoaddressthefundamentalnonempiricalquestionsofthehumanconditionLexicaldefinitionofethicsmoralityoEthicsmoralprinciplesthatgovernapersonorgroupsdecisionsTextbookanswerAttemptingtodiscernandremovecontradictionsamongnonempiricalreasonedbeliefsthathaveuniversalimportancewiththeresultingbenefitofachievingagreaterunderstandingoftheworldandourplacewithinitoMoralitythedifferentiationbetweenactionsthataregoodorbadBasicsubjectmatterofmoralphilosophyorethicaltheoryothestudyofconceptualnonempiricalquestionsregardingthenatureofethicsandmoralityAreanymoraljudgmentsobjectivelytrueoraretheymerelyexpressionsofsubjectivepreferencesandpersonalattitudesWhybemoralWhatisthecorrectstandardforguidingmoraldecisionsWhatisthegoodlifeforhumanbeingsMetaethicsnormativeethicsappliedethicsoMetaethicsthesubfieldofmoralphilosophythatfocusesonissuesregardingthefundamentalstatusandnatureofmoralityoNormativeethicsThesubfieldofmoralphilosophythatfocusesonidentifyinganddefendingstandardsofrightconductandorgoodlivingoNormativeprescriptivevsdescriptiveethicsoNormativeEthicsthesubfieldofmoralphilosophythatfocusesonidentifyinganddefendingstandardsofrightconductandorgoodlivingExampleWhetheritiscorrecttoholdabeliefthatkillingiswrongoPrescriptiveEthicsAnothernamefornormativeethicsoDescriptiveEthicsAnempiricalinvestigationofpeoplesmoralbeliefsExamplewhatproportionsofpeoplebelievethatkillingiswrongUtilitarianism in Pop Culture What you should knowUtilitarianismfirstformulatedbyBenthamoThedoctrinethattherightnessofactionsistobejudgedbytheirconsequencesoMillsGreatestHappinessPrincipleanothernameforutilityoBasedoffofharmorbenefitfromsomeonesactionsoCanttakepersonalintegrityintoaccountoTherearenoactionsthatareinherentlyrightorwrongitsjustbasedoffofwhathappensfromtheactionsoUtilitarianismfitswithethicalnaturalismMillsonprovingtheprincipleofutilityHappinesshasmadeoutitstitleasoneoftheendsofconductandconsequentlyoneofthecriteriaofmoralityoConsequentialismtheviewthatmoraltheoriesshouldstresstheresultsofactionsinvariablyassociatedwithUTMaximizingutilitybringingaboutthegreatestratioofpleasureordesiresatisfactionpossiblegiventhecircumstancescontemporaryconsequentialistsPeterSingerJJCSmartBradHookerCriticismsofUtilitarianismoDeontologicalobjectionssomeactionsshouldnotbedoneregardlessoftheirconsequencesoPredictingconsequencesisdifficultoCalculatinghappinessoNozicksutilitymonstermonsterswhogetenormouslygreatersumsofutilityfromanysacrificeofothersthantheseotherslosethetheoryseemstorequireoBernardWilliamsBelievesonecanbecommittedtopersonalgainvstheUTviewthatweshouldstandbackfromourprojectsandvaluethemonlyifthepromotethegeneralutilityBelievesthedoctrineofUTdeprivesagentsoftheirintegritybecauseitseparatesanagentsactionsfromhisprojectsTwoexampleshegives1GeorgeanunemployednewPhDinchemistryshouldhetakeajobworkingonbiologicalandchemicalwarfareSomeoneelsewillifGeorgedoesntGeorgehasafamilyjobsarescarceGeorgeswifeisntagainstthissortofresearch2JiminthejungleeitherAmankillstwentyIndiansorJimkillsonetosave19InboththeutilitarianshouldtakethejobandkilltheonebuttheaftereffectsofbadfeelingsarethoughtasirrationaltoUTpeopleratherthanvaluedorfollowed
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