Federalism Text Notes (got 94% in the course)

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Political Science
POLI 2052
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CHAPTER II FEDERALISMI DefinitionsLets start with a few definitions about political systemsFederalism is a political or government system in which sovereignty authority over a geographic area is formally divided across a central governing authority and other political units such as states provinces or localitiesIn a federalist system power to govern is shared across multiple levels of government eg national state and local levels of governmentSome examples of federalist governments are the United States Argentina Australia Brazil Canada Iraq Germany India Malaysia Mexico Nigeria and RussiaMost nations are not federal nations most nations have unitary government with one relatively strong central government as the authority and subnational units have only powers given to them by the nationalcentral governmentA third type of system is a confederacy or confederationExamples of confederacies include the United States under the Articles of Confederation the Confederate States of America the Iroquois Confederacy the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro from 20032006 formerly Yugoslavia expired in 2006 when Montenegro declared its independenceArguably the UN and perhaps the EU could be considered confederationsIntergovernmental relations refers to the relationship across the different levels of government in a federalist systemDual federalism or layer cake federalism refers to a federalist system where powers are very clearly defined across levels of government the national government has authority over one set of issues and the state government has authority over another set of issuesCooperative Federalism or marble cake federalism is a federalist system where the different levels of government share powers across the same set of issuesOur system began as a dual federalist system but since the New Deal has been very much a cooperative federalist systemWe have a federalist system The key question then becomes what powers are granted to the national governmentAnd what powers are reserved for the statesHow has this shifted over timeIIPowers Granted to the National GovernmentSupremacy ClauseNecessaryProper ClauseMcCulloch v Maryland 1819
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