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Psychology Final Review

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Louisiana State University
PSYC 2000

Module 46 Study GuideHow did the trait theorists describe personality An individuals unique constellation of durable dispositions and consistent ways of behaving traits constitute his personalityoHow are traits assessed through factor analysisFactor analysis is a statistical approach used to describe and relate personality traitsoPersonality inventoryAre questionanaires often with truefalse or afreedesagree items designed to gauge a wide range of feelings and behavior assessing several traits at onceWhat are the Big Five Most people believe Cattells 16PF inventory is too large and Eysencks is too small so a middle ground of 5 was establishedThey are conscientiousness agreeableness neuroticism openness and extraversionWhat controversy is the major criticism of trait theory The PeronSituation Controversytraits bay be enduring but the resulting behavior in different situations is differentThus traits are not good predictors of behaviorsWhat is the socialcognitive view of personality Bandura believes that personality is the result of an interaction that takes place between a person and his social contextoReciprocal determinismthe three factors behavior cognition and environment are interlocking determinants of each otherExBungeejumpingCognitive factors thoughts and feelings about risky behavior environmental factors bungeejumping friendsbehavior learning to bungee jumpWhat are 3 ways that individuals interact with their environments 1Different people choose different environments school you attend music you listen to shows you watch 2 Our personalities shape how we interpret and react to events anxious people view the world as threatening and react accordingly3 Our personalities help create situations to which we react How we view and treat people influences how they in turn treat usoKnow these terms personal control external and internal loci learned helplessness optimism and pessimismPersonal Controlwhether we control the environment or the environment controls usExternal locus of controlrefers to the perception that chance or outside forces beyond our personal control determine our fateInternal locus of control refers to the perception that we can control our own fateLearned helplessnesswhen unable to avoid repeated aversive events an animal or human learns hopelessnessUncontrollable bad events leads to a perceived lack of control which is followed by generalized helpless behaviorOptimismgeneral disposition to expect the best in all thingsPessimismgeneral disposition to look on the dark side and to expect the worst in all thingsWhat is the driving force behind the socialcognitive view of personality The environment and cognitionMajor criticism of the socialcognitive theory of personality Social cognitive psychologists pay a lot of attention to the situation and less attention to the individual his unconscious mind his emotions and his geneticsWhy is the self thought to be so important to understand personality Because the self organizes thinking feeling and actions and is a critical part of our personalityoKnow these terms spotlight effect selfesteem bias defensive and secure selfesteemSpotlight effecthow we overestimate our concern that others evaluate our appearance performance and blunderWe think people are paying attention to us a lot more than they actually are Selfserving biaswe accept responsibility for good deeds and successes than for bad deeds and failuresDefensive SelfEsteemis fragileIt focuses on sustaining itself which makes failures and criticisms threateningIt correlates with aggressive and antisocial behaviorSecure SelfEsteemis less fragile because it is less contingent on external evaluationsWe feel accepted for who we are and not for our looks money or acclaimModule 47 Study GuideWhat are the 3 characteristics of psychological disorders Deviant distressful and dysfunctionalHow might deviant behavior vary by culture context or time Culture going naked in some cultures is considered normal while in others its considered deviant behavior Context mass killing be viewed as normal or even heroic during wartimeHow does the medical model view psychological disorders The medical model looks at the etiology causation and development of the disorder a diagnosis identifying symptoms and distinguishing one disease from another treatment treating a disorder in a psychiatric hospital prognosis forecast about the disorderoWhat finding helped to change the way people viewed psychological disorders and the medical modelPhilippe Pinel from France isisted that madness was not due to demonic possession but an ailment of the mindoDefine etiology diagnosis treatment and progress see aboveoWhat are two criticisms of the medical modelHow are psychological orders diagnosed They are diagnosed through the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders DSM They are diagnosed through their symptomsWhat is the purpose of the DSMIVTo classify psychological disordersoWhat are the main criticisms of the DSMIVit buts any kind of behavior within the compass of psychiatry labels can stigmatize individuals
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