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Psychology Notes

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PSYC 2000
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Chapter OneIPsychology the scientific study of mental processes mind and behavior Root word Psyche soul or breath Greek rootsAScienceaFrom the latin word scireto knowEmpirical Observationobjective evidence gathered through direct observationolook at certain behaviorsCommon Sense StatementsOut of sight out of mindBirds of a feather flock togetherLook before you leapNever to old to learnAbsence makes the heart group fonderOpposites attractHe who hesitates is lostYou cant teach an old dog a new trickAggression Males v FemalesExperiment 913 boys and girls in a schoolyardoMales are more aggressiveoConclusion it all depends upon what you were looking forBMindMental ProcessesaContents and processes of subjective experience sensations thoughts and emotions etcwhat you feel what you think how you feelCBehavioraObservable actions performed by a personanimaliVoluntary behaviorthink before you doiiInvoluntary behavior bObservanceiMotions and body languageiiCellular brain wavesIICognitive ProcessaMentalthinking processIIIThree Levels of AnalysisaLevel of BrainiEvents involving the structure and properties of organizing itself1central nervous systemabrain and spinal cordineurotransmittersbLevel of the PersoniEvents involving the nature of beliefs desires and feeling1What are beliefs morals superstitions stereotypes expectationscLevel of the groupiInvolving relationships between people among groups and cultures1influence by the environmentIVWhat todays psychologists doaClinical and Counseling Psychology The healing professioniClinical Psychologists diagnosis and treatment of psychological problems1treat disorders and deal with clients2training others who are new to the field may teach do volunteer workiiCounseling Psychologists help people deal with naturally arising issues1helps people how to deal with new situationsiiiPsychiatrist physician who focuses on mental disorders1prescribes medicine2has to go through medical school3not trained in giving psychological testsivSocial Worker teaches clients how to use social service systemsvPsychiatric Nurse provides psychotherapy and works with medical doctorsbApplied Psychology Better Living Through PsychologyiApplied Psychologist conduct research to solve practical problems1work in industry and environments2WWII pilots ejected from own planes found all buttons were similar changed the features in planes3jury consultantsiiHuman factor psychology improves products for more efficient usecAcademic research psychology research and training iResearch psychologist tries to discover the basic principles of mind and behavioriiDevelopmental Psychologist how thinking and behavior develop with age1teach read etciiiCognitive Psychologists higher mental processes such as thinking and memoryVPsychologys RootsaSocrates and Plato mind separable from the body and knowledge built into us logiciSocratesplatos teacheriiHe Socrates never wrote anythingLooked forward to deathiiiAristole Platos student1loved data empiricism2knowledge is not preexisting It grows from experience stored in our memoriesamind is not separableivRene Descartes innate knowledge mind distinct from body 1600s1have nerves that contained animal spiritsbThe controversy of the mindbody issue produced 2 camps 2 groupsiDualists mind and body are distinct but interacting entities1when die your mind leaves the bodyiiMonists mind and body are different aspects of the same thingiiiToday mind is nothing more than brain activity1mind is the brains functionVINature v NutureaJohn Locke tabula rasa blank slate humans develop through experiences nurtureiOften thought of as the father of psychologybJeanJacques Rousseau heredity forms the human heredityiBorn with the product of evolutionary VIIEarly Days begin to map metal processes and behavioraWilheim Wundt Leipzig Germany 1879iFather of modernday psychologyiiOpened the first psychological lab iiiWas trying to see how long mind takes to reactivAfroception dropped ball and press button and be awarev110 of second pressed 210 of second aware of itvitiming method time not preciseVIIISchools of Thought what and how a phenomenon is studied can understand personality by dreams thoughts desires and tell whyaStructuralism how basic elements sensations and feelings formed mental structureiIntrospection looking within1go down to the core to see whats the problem and whyaEdward Titchener USA HarvardiWilheim Wundts graduate student and coined the term structuralismiiHad to trans late the masters workiiiThings he agreed with translated accurately disagreed twisted the ideabFunctionalism emphasized the purpose of immediate experienceiWhat is the function Asks what and and whyiiFounder William James he applied Darwins theory to mental characteristics1he started the first labHarvard He wanted to know why mental capacity survive and whats it good forcGestalt Psychology emphasized the overall patterns perceptual units of thoughts or experiencesiThe wholenessiiWhole is greater than some of the partsiiiGroupingivFounder Max Wertheimer Germany1born with innate distinct patterns2if perception is in error then the interpretation is incorrectdPsychodynamic Theory continual push and pull interaction among conscious and unconscious forcesiFounder Sigmund Freud Vienna Austria1dream interpretations a lot of things are driven by aggression sexual desires and thoughts we have no control over themeBehaviorism how a specific stimulus evokes a specific responseiAntecedent Behavioral Response Consequenceiiwhat you do depends upon environmentiiifounder JB Watson Johns Hopkins1stated know what you can be and how you turn out by controlling your environmentfHumanismemphasized the unique qualities of humans especially their freedom and their potential of personal growth not considered to be patients they are clientsiFounder Abraham Maslow selfactualiztion and Carl Rogers selfcentered therapy1says do what you wanted to do free will you decidegcognitive Psychology attempts to characterize how information is stored and operation internallyiin the early 60s computers came about and became wellknown as well at the same time1cognitive neuroscience2No one founder of this type of psychologyhEvolutionary Psychology certain cognitive strategies are naturally selected thus built into the brainiBorn with certain strategiesiiEx can easily deceive someone iiiTrying to find what is culturally consistent1see how different people from cultures react to certain aspects and situations2 five expresseions are generally consistent
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