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Final Exam Review Notes

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Course Code
PSYC 2040

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Ch 10 Aggression Hurting OthersAggression Physical or verbal behavior intended to cause harmAggression excludes unintentional harm such as auto accidents or sidewalk collisions it also excludes actions that may involve pain as an unavoidable side effect of helping someone such as dental treatments It includes kicks and slaps threats and insults and even gossip It includes decisions during experiments about how much to hurt someone such as how much electric shock to impose It also includes destroying property lying and other behavior whose goal is to hurtHostile aggression aggression driven by anger and is an end in itselfMost murders are hostile aggression Half erupt from arguments others result from romantic triangles or from brawls while under the influence of alcohol or drugsInstrumental aggression aggression that is means to some other endMost terrorism is instrumental aggression Most wars are instrumental aggression They are strategically plannedHostile aggression is hot instrumental aggression is coolTheories of AggressionAggression as a Biological PhenomenonInstinct and Evolution Aggressive energy is instinctive unlearned and universal If not discharged it supposedly builds up until it explodes or until an appropriate stimulus releases it Instinct theory fails to account for the variations in aggressiveness from person to person and culture to culture Although aggression is biologically influencesd the human propensity to aggress does not qualify as instinctive behavior Neural influencesNo one spot in the brain controls aggressionResearchers found neural systems in both animals and humans that facilitate aggression When the scientists activate these brain areas hostility increases when they deactivate them hostility decreases After receiving painless electrical stimulation in a womans amygdala she became enraged and smashed her guitar against the wall barely missing her psychiatrist s head Abnormal brains can contribute to abnormally aggressive behaviorGenetic influencesperceiving the cues as aggressive or not Our temperaments how intense and reactive we are are partly brought with us into the world influenced by our sympathetic nervous systems reactivity A persons temperament observed in infancy usually endures A child who is nonaggressive at age 8 will very likely still be a nonaggressive person at age 48 Identical twins will most likely agree on their violent or nonviolent behavior Nature and nurture interactBiochemical influencesEX alcohol affects the way you perceive situations more aggressiveTESTOSTEROMEPg 358 Human aggressiveness correlates with the male sex hormone testosterone More testosterone more violent After age 25 most peoples testosterone levels decrease People with wider faces display more aggressionSerotonin is what depressed people are lacking Lower levels will lead to more aggression since you are less happyAmygdala responsible for any sort of emotion FEAR is taken place in this part of the brainFrontal Cortex basically what makes us human in a way Its where we do future planning assessing situations making decisions It tells ushow much fear or anger to give off EX In Canada there are no guns Coming into the states that was a fear of Ms Karam When shes driving here she wants to curse when people cut her off HOWEVER her frontal cortex tells her not too because basically everyone in the US has a gun It is important to remember that the traffic between testosterone serotonin and behavior flows both ways Neural genetic and biochemical influences predispose some people to react aggressively to conflict It is scientifically incorrect to say that way or an other violent behavior is genetically programmed into our human nature or that war is caused by instinct or any single motivation There are ways o reduce human aggressionResponse to FrustrationFrustrationaggression theoryanything that is blocking our goal will lead to frustrationwhich will lead to aggression Frustration grows when our motivation to achieve a goal is very strong when we expected gratification and when the blocking is complete It can often appear as road rage Fig 102 pg 360
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