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PSYC 2076
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Psyc 2076 Chapter 1 Introduction to Child DevelopmentOrientationScientific study of patterns of growth change and stability from conception through adolescenceTopical areas in Child DevelopmentoPhysical development bodys physical makeup including brain nervous system muscles and sensesNeed to eat sleep and drinkoCognitive Development how growth and change in intellectual capabilities influence a persons behavior Learning memory problem solving and intelligenceoPersonality and Social DevelopmentPersonality Development how enduring characteristics that make individuals unique change across the lifespanWhich personality characteristics seem stable over the lifespan and which changeSocial Development how an individuals interactions with others and their social relationships grow change and remain stable over the lifespanAge Ranges and Individual Differences Prenatal period conception to birthinfancy and toddlerhood birth to 3 preschool age 3to 6Middle school 6 to 12Adolescences 12 to 20Social Constructions shared ideas about reality that are widely accepted but are functions of society and culture at a given timeMilestones of development refer to averages lots of individual variabilityNo need to worry unless child is substantially lateMore commonalitypredictability the younger the child isInfluence of Culture Race and Ethnicity on Developmentculture is another big influence on development Western cultures individualism selfesteem independence Eastern cultures collectivism contribution to the family unit society in generalExoChild 1 agricultural community few resources Expectations help family with farming incomeParents focus more on basic protection and survival needsIn later years practical skills and hands on experiencesGoal survive into adulthood and contribute to the familyoChild 2 parents focus more on lifestyleFlashy toys playdatesIn later years parents focus on the right schools and achievementGoal go to college make moneyWeird CulturesoWestern Educated Industrialized Rich and Democratico12 of worlds populationoAfricanCaribbeanIndia caregivers massage and exercise infants dailyoWalk earlier compared to weird cultures confirmed with lab experimentsoNorthern China infants are toileted by laying them on their backs on sandbags most of the dayoDelays onset of sitting crawling and walking relative to weird culturesoBack sleeping can delay onset of crawlingoSome cultures do not encourage crawling infants tend to skip that stepoRace limited use as a concept 999 of everyones genetic material is the sameoMisuse of the term ethnicity well just consider it a cultural influenceCohort Influences on Development with Others in a Social WorldCohort group of people born at around the same time in the same placeoThe Lost Generation aka the Generation of 1914 in Europe those who fought in WWI Born between 18831900oThe Greatest Generation aka the GI Generation includes vets who fought in WWII Born around 19011924 great depressionoThe silent generation aka the lucky few 19251942 too young to join WWII Fought Korean WaroThe Baby Boomers generation born following WWII 19461964 increases birth rate associated with rejection or redefinition of traditional valuesIn Europe and north America widely associated with privilege oGeneration X those born after the baby boomers 19601980oGeneration Y aka millennial generation late 197019802000oGeneration Z early 2000 to presentCohort effects particular impact of a group bonded by time or common life experienceoTypes of Cohort Effects History graded influences influences correlated with historical time experienced by majority of a cultureWars and epidemics Majority of a cohort experience the event in similar waysMay affect cohorts differentlyAge graded influences effects on development that tend to occur at approximately same chronological age in most peopleBiological effects Environmental effects entering school Sociocultural graded influences social and cultural factors present at a particular time for a particular individual depending on such variables as ethnicity social class and subcultural membershipNon normative life events significant unexpected unpredictable events for a particular individual which do not follow predictable development pattern of life cycleHistorical Views of ChildhoodOriginal sin view Middle Ages kids are born bad oReligious salvationTabula rasa view late 1600s kids are born blank oJohn LockeoParents should spend a lot of time with kids to teach them right and wrongInnate Goodness view aka noble savage view 1700s Jean Jacques Rousseau Kids are born innately good
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