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Psych Notes (highest grade in class)

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Louisiana State University
PSYC 2078

824Introduction to Adolescenceadolescence is the period after puberty begins and before adult roles are taken on a fairly new term field of psychology doesnt study adolescence as much as children or adults culturally constructed very different in different culturesA Cultural Construct recognized as a life period length content daily experience differs among cultures Adolescence in Western Cultures Ancient Greece Plato 3 different life stages Infancy birth to 7 Too undeveloped to learn things Childhood 714 Education should focus on sports and musichad capacity to understand simple concepts Adolescence 1421reason can study math and scienceAristotle had similar viewschildren the same as animalsseeking pleasureChildrens Crusade When children walked from germany to jerusalem to appeal to visit holy sights 15001890 Teenagers engaged in life cycle circuits teen trains under a master faded due to industrial revolutionIndustrial Revolution teens moved to major cities without social support became major problem to society led to development of YMCA18901920 Age of Adolescence legislation prohibiting child labor required education 5 to 30 within 30 yrs of teenschildren in school people started realizing that adolescents were a separate group from children or adultsG Stanley Hall Child Study Movement started it wanted to research to better the lives of children and adolescentsRecapitulation development of individual reenacts evolution of human theory discreditedStorm and Stress upheaval and disorder is a normal part of adolescence catastrophic and dramatic viewAdolescence was 1424 yrs old Today 1018 yrs old First signs of puberty begin about two years prior to menarchechanged to younger ages because of puberty and high school Research shows adolescents have increased depression greater conflict with parents and unpredictable mood swings and behavior Emerging Adulthood 1825 yrs old Identity explorationsexploring choices Instability residential change Selffocusno major commitments feeling inbetween possibilitiesreformationin US we postpone adulthood for fear of large commitments not all cultures have emerging adulthoodTransition to Adulthood US legal adulthood at 18 Individualismaccept responsibilitymake independent choicesbecome financially independentIn traditional cultures marriageadulthood has a collectivist feelResearch RulesInformed Consent letting participants know what the research isReliability gives same results every time something is measuredValidity measuring what its supposed to measurecan be valid without being reliable and can be reliable without being valid826 Research MethodsEthnography participant observationqualitative measurmentsBiological Measurements biological factors TannerExperimental Research treatment and control groups ie research on media use antidrug interventionsNaturalistic situation occurs naturally not controlled by the researcher ie twin studies Correlation vs Causation correlation does not imply causation interpretation is needed to understand relation between correlation and causationdetermine Cause and Effect through controlled experimental studiesBronfenbrenner developed a system that showed all the different things that affect a person Individual sex health age Microsystem home school peers Exosystem person doesnt play an active roleMacrosystem attitudes and ideologies of the cultureone of the first to credit cultural influenceshistorical changes influence developmentchildren and adolescents are active participants in their development are not passivesubmissive to external influencesA good theory has 4 elements1 it explains everything that it should in simplicity2 furthers future research3 it can be researched4 needs to be able to be modifiedBiological FoundationsPuberty derived from latin word which means to grow hairythe body undergoes a biological revolution that dramatically changes the adolescents
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