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PSYC4008 Exam1Notes

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PSYC 4008

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PSYC4008History of Psychology READ Ch 1Pg 31 chapter 2 Exam 1 Notes Chapter 1 IHistoriography the study of writing history aHistories are selectiveiIf you are going to write a history of everything you cant just put everything down you have to choose what is relevantiiYou have to use your judgment as a writer as to what to tell the reader bHistorians want to avoid bias iUse guidelines presentism vs historicism 1The perspective you take on entire history 2Presentismfrom our point of view from what we know today 3Historicisminterpretation based on context place self in time and that location IIPresentism vs HistoricismaPresentism Use the present state of knowledge present point of view and from that point of view you interpret that past event Look at the notion that mental events are caused by spiritual forces you interpret that point of view from the point of view of today The problem with this approach is that it can be kind of dismissive condescendingiWe are now a scientific discipline we havent always been so and heres an example of when we werent iiAlmost like arroganceWe know the earth isnt flat can you believe these people thought thatbHistoricism Place yourself into context and use the point of view of those who lived during that time One of the problems is that you are running the risk of making that history less relevant to the present state of affairs It can be more like an interesting old tale rather than how it applies to stthe 21 century psychology iDont make judgments on opinions you just say what it was iiOur book falls more to the historicism side but it also makes interpretations IIIInternal vs External HistoryaInternal Hue as closely as possible to that subject If you are going to talk about a certain topic you want to stick as closely as you can to things that you can call psychologyiFocus as much as possible on the subject bExternal These historical developments that have taken place in psychology take place in other disciplines too You could focus on decline in the power of religion or any other external forces iPlace developments in a field of a greater context iiOur view of what we are like today is a product of the modern age and scientific revolution etc cOur book is intermediate between the two IVPersonalistic vs Naturalistic HistoryaPersonalistic Boring wrote the history of experimental psychology and focused on the notion that change occurred in the rise of scientific psychology largely because of key figures and key psychologists Change was driven by key individuals So you need to focus on key names Ex Charles Darwin is the reason for the Theory of Evolution iRobert Watsonwrote at the time what was considered to the best psychology book ever writtenpoint was to say change through time in psychology can be explained if you look at key figures people who were proposing something new and moving us alongcould be perceived as history of the peoplebNaturalistic There are external factors that are in the environment that are driving change It is not denying that there was innovative individuals but it points out the context within it rose Ex Charles Darwin was important in the theory of evolution but others also made many contributionsiMore likely to say Freuds psychoanalytic theory is an evolutionary product and not original at alliiZeitgeistOrtgeist personalistic vs naturalistic geistspirit atmosphere climate th1Zeitgeist German for time spirit of timeage In the late 19 century there was a zeitgeist who was responsible for the theory of evolution and Charles Darwin proposed it 2Ortgeist Both examples of how naturalistic factors can shift historical change spirit of place there are places that have an intellectual climate about them that transcend time and are relatively persistent through time aEx Southern writersimminent writers from the southern united states has a quality about it that is very enduring as it was over 100 years ago bA place can have an intellectual atmosphere that a person could be exposed to V TerminologyaWatsons PrescriptionsiWatson developed prescriptive theory which is like a prescription written by physiciana guideline that is used in some place or time that characterizes many beliefsprescriptions are presented as opposites iiDeterminismIndeterminism Points of View aWhat extent you and I choose our own actions or is some other force driving us 2Determinism There is a cause behind everything So you want to explain something psychological the way to do it is to get to the root cause What causes those things to happenaYou probably believe that if you wanted to you could yell out some obscenitydeterminist would say yeah just go ahead and do that but we know that would be wrong ethically and legallybecause we are the way we are and act the way we do because of determining factors bChildhood society religion cFreud believed that every thought and action was predetermined by some antecedent 3Indeterminist Things do occur in a more free form way more like spontaneous recombination or mutation Its like our notion of free will We are free to do what we want to do and we are free to do what we care to do A determinist would say no you think you have free will but you really dont aVery few psychological beliefs are indeterminist almost all think there is an underlying cause for our actions bWe tend to lean toward the notion of free willcYou lack of ability to get up and destroy your neighbors laptop is determinism you think you have free will but you dont dThe behaviors are more on the side of determinism This is because of things like social norms conditioning and reinforcement They think that what you and I do is predetermined by these things
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