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Exam 2 Study Guide

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PSYC 4030
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From Perception and Attention Lecture first sectionWhat has research on the impact of cell phone use on driving revealed Compared to being drunk cell phone use led to1 Slower reaction time2 Longer to recover lost speed following braking3 Increase in rear end accidents4 Drivers compensating by increasing following distance cellphone use interferes with drivingWhat causes this interference motor interference attentional interference inattention blindness PLAYS GREATEST ROLE inattentional blindness more impairing than driving while legally intoxicatedSome research suggests that more conversations are more impairing than others more negative emotionmore impairingProblem Solving LectureWhat are the components of the IDEAL problem solving frameworkIDEAL ModeloIidentify the problem people dont always identify the problem so identifying a problem is the first place to startEx two brothers viro brothers worked in a print shopThey had to ge a proof of what it is your going to print outDipping pen in inkThe barrel would leak and they would have to do the proof all over again this was a real issueThey saw this as a problemSo because of this they decided to seek a solutionViro brothers came up with the idea of ballpoint penStarted BIC pensoD define and represent the problemhot grease hurts from cooking bacon how would you solve thisDiffernet types of things to do to solve problemoE explore possible strategiesoA Act on the StrategiesoL look back and evaluate resultsHow does the two trains problem highlight the importance of problem representationImportance of Problem RepresentationoTwo trans problem deals with defining the problemRepresentation 1 could add all those distances up and get and answer vs representation 2 time x speeddistancepoint is there is a multiple ways to get to a problem but one is more efficientAnd you cant get stuck doing it one particular wayWhat are set effects and how was this demonstrated in Luchins 1942 water jug problemLucins 1942water jug problemo17Lo7Lo3LLucins water jug problemoTableoTyring to in the fewest number of steps be left with that number of cups desired quantitiyoWater and three jugs and end up with bucket with exactly that amount of watero2 groups in original study one group did all ten problems and the other just did the last fiveoIn group that did all ten is because they all can be solved the same way B2cAoThe bottom five can be solved in easier ways 6 810 can do AC and the other 7 and 9 can do ACoPoint is you can get stuck in solving things in a particular way and you dont see an easier way of doing itSet effectsoProblem solvers biased by their experience to prefer familiar strategiesoProblem solvers are ignoring easier ways to solve problems in favor of more familiar ones this is kind of like a habitoEffect can be reduced with a warningDont be blind look for other ways of doing somethingWhat is functional fixednessFunctional fixedness Representing objects in terms of their typical use and not seeing novel usesDunckers 1945 Candle Problem dealing with functional fixednessoAttatch the candle to the wall so it will burn properly and not spill wax on the flooroAnother two string problem two strings hanging from the ceilingOne on one side and the other sideHave chair in room and a wrench as well as variety of toolsTold to tie two strings togetherCannot reach both and tie themSo tie the wrench to the stringsoAnother example of rigidity in problem solvingoMacGyverHas to find his way out of situtiation and uses things in unconventional waysWhat are the components of the Synectics method R Mathews of group problem solvingGroup problem solving Roles CLIENT resources timer scribeoHeadline of problem 3 minClient states main goaloGeneration of ideas and springboards 15 minoSelect a set of ideas 3 minClient only 1 to 4 very specific measurableoList pros and cons obstacles 6 minClient first then all can addoBuild to overcome cons 10 minClient and resourcesoSelect final set of ideas to implement 3 minClientWhat this method buys you synetic methodoGets all opinions on the tableoIdeas you would not have thought ofoEfficient use of timeoAvoids pushy selling of ideasoLets you control the processoIdentifies holes in your planoIdentifies obstacles you might have missed
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