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Notes Test 3 Material

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PSYC 4034
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TEST 3 INFOCHAPTER 4 PSYCHOPHARMACOLOGY Psychopharmacologythe study of the effects of drugs on the nervous system and behavior Deals almost exclusively with the effects of drugs on nervous systemoDrugs effect nervous system to alter behavior changes that we can observe in an animals physiological processes and behavior Assumptions about drugs oAre exogenous chemicalsProduced outside the bodyoAlter neuron activity oHave effects at low doses Anything can be toxic to the nervous system if put enough into it oSuggest endogenous ligandsEither replicating effect blocking effectPharmacokineticsHow easy are they to administer to the person How easy are they broken down in a system Drugs must reach target sitesPharmacokinetics study of absorption distribution where and how and elimination how does it leaveRoutes oBy far the most popular route for humans is by mouthoral Some cant because they dont survive thru the gastrin intestinesoIntravenous IV Very potentoIntraperitoneal IPMembrane lined cavity Contains intracellular fluid that you can inject things into itPicked up by capillaries and brought into the blood stream Rarely done on humansoSubcutaneous SCLong lasting oIntramuscular IMGoing into tissue that is highly vascularized Can put quite a bit into the muscle Drug EffectivenessIts potency Doseresponse DR curve compares drug does and effect oCurve is common kind of curve lazy s shaped curve If continue to increase drug dose beyond its effective range its effectiveness drops offDR curves differoSite of action Some drugs are more potent than others because have an effect on a particular system that produces an effect in a pronounced way Most common drug administered in US todayused to treat high blood pressure One dilates blood systemcausing pressure to go down One seeks to reduce the volume of blood oAffinity How the receptor binds Drug Effects Vary with Repeated Administration The problem with taking drugs for a refractory periodour bodies react and try to reverse the effect Tolerance effects diminish with repeated useoIn terms of DR curvemaybe doesnt change shape or range but it is shifted to the rightoDecrease in number or affinity of receptorsMost common is forof receptors to go down If you take heroin in a chronic wayblood level of oppent is elevated and releasedoDown regulationmost common for drugs to lose effect Affinity has lost effect of binding oIf you have developed tolerance to a drug because you have down regulated your body has many fewer receptors result is that you will have a response that would be a reverse of the drug effectoWithdrawalassociated with tolerance o2 cardinal symptoms of addictiontolerance and withdrawal Sensitization effects increase with repeated use Synaptic TransmissionTransmitters synthesized stored released and inactivatedoFigure 44 Drugs can only increase or decrease receptors Agonist increase or mimics effect of NT oWill either reproduce NT effect or they will enhance itoCan work in 2 waysDirect agonist binds to site for principal ligand Indirect agonist binds to alternative site and does not interfere with binding of principal ligand Antagonist decreases effect of NToDirect and indirect effects Agonist or AntagonistInhibit release oAntagonistPrevent storage in vesicleoAntagonistBlock autoreceptor decreases amount of NT on the presynaptic sideoAgonistBlock deactivating enzymeoAgonistBlock synthetic enzymeoAntagonist
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