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Topic 10 NOTES (97% in the course

18 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 4035
Professor
All

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Topic 10CannabisA Background1 Most commonly used illegal drug in the worldIn 2009 25 of US teenagers had smoked marijuana in the past month Partnership for a DrugFree America 2010 2 Difficult to classifylike sedatives but not like barbiturates becauseHigh doses may alter perceptions even pain but dont produce anesthesia coma or deathNot much crosstolerance between active ingredient THC and either LSD or barbiturates 3 More people have been smoking cannabis in recent years because its easy to find cheaper more potent and more socially acceptable than it used to beMost smokers start at age 18 and ten years later 8 of users have lost control of their cannabis useMost people smoke cannabis only once in a while for a short period of time generally stop in their midtolate 20s and only a few smoke every day for long periodsOfficial name for marijuanaLike sedatives because it makes you sleepy but its not dangerous like a barb Pharmacologically its in a group by itself8 loss control of use and become addicted3 Most controversial recreational drug Nov 2010 15 states and DC have approved the legal use of marijuana for medical purposesSeveral states are considering legalization for medical purposes or reducing penalties for possessing small amounts for personal consumption A ballot on November 2 2010 in California Proposition 090024 to legalize and tax marijuana for recreational consumption similar to alcoholfailed to pass These initiatives would place state laws in conflict with federal statutes BThe Plant1 Three typesa C sativa hemptall woodyb Indica grown in India shorterhigher THCa Ruderalis northern EuropeAsiashort growth period low potency Are they species or varieties2 Not selfpollinating female needs pollen from male to reproduce So the flowers of the female exude a sticky resin to help catch the males pollen and protect the seeds from heat and insects this contains a high THC concentration Should marijuana or the active drug THC be made available for recreational use by adults in the United States If approved forrecreational use in California what standards would be established for driving under the influence DUI workplace job testing andother situations What standards should be used to determine legal amounts of combined blood alcohol and THC in DUI arrestsHow should society deal with the use of marijuana by those under the age of 21 Not self pollinatingflowers of female plant put out a sticky resin THC that protects the seeds and catches the pollen of the male plant3 Active ingredients over 80 cannabinoids known a Most common is delta9 same as delta1 tetrahydrocannabinol THCb Cannabis productsHashish and charas dried resinous exudates of the female flowers most potent 1020 THCGanja and sinsemilla dried material from tops offemale plants 58 THCBhang and marijuana dried remainder of plant 25 THC Different parts of the plant have different amounts of THCC History Ancientcultivated and widely dispersed before recorded history1 Earliest written accounts from China 2700 BC2 Around 1500 1000 spread to Southeast Asia India3 Scythians brought it to Palestine Egypt Russia and Europe4 Used for fiber to make rope cloth oil medicine and intoxication the Greek physician Galen cautioned that its use may lead to senseless talk5 In Middle Ages it came to the Muslim world and Africa Said to make you crave sweets get high improve sex and creativity also decrease the sex drive produce insanity and cause an amotivational syndrome The term assassin or hashishiyyaprobably used to describe common criminals who also used hashish This plant has had many uses over the years6 Modern Era 1800s Napoleons troops brought back recreational use from wars in Egypt Became very popular in FranceMany wrote similar descriptions of the highMedicinal use was proposed by a young chemistry professor WB OShaughnessy who reported it was an anticonvulsant and appetite stimulant It soon was reported to be useful for treating tetanus asthma migraine addiction mental illness etc The drug used for recreation and medicine was not thought to be the same as the plant used for hemp Hemp was very important because it made good rope and rope was important because ships were crucial to the empire and ships needed lots of rope But hemp did not grow well in England so the American colonies were encouraged to grow it Sir Walter Raleigh was ordered to grow it which he did in the first season 1611 next to tobacco It was a staple crop for over 200 yrs for rope clothes and paper Even George Washington grew it It was the major crop before the cotton gin In 1839 W B OShaughnessy at the Medical College of Calcutta observed its use in the indigenous treatment of various disorders and found that tincture of hemp was an effective analgesic anticonvulsant and muscle relaxant1 Publication of OShaughnessys paper created a stir within a medical establishment which at that time had access to only a few effective medicines In the next several decades many papers on cannabis appeared in the Western medical literature It was widely used until the first
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