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PSYC 4035 Study Guide - Tral, Anandamide, Teratology

18 Pages
48 Views
Winter 2013

Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 4035
Professor
All

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Topic 10 – Cannabis
A. Background
1. Most commonly used illegal drug in the world: In 2009, 25% of US teenagers had smoked marijuana
in the past month (Partnership for a Drug-Free America, 2010).
2. Difficult to classify - like sedatives, but not like barbiturates because
High doses may alter perceptions, even pain, but don’t produce anesthesia, coma or death
Not much cross-tolerance between active ingredient THC and either LSD or barbiturates
3. More people have been smoking cannabis in recent years, because it's easy to find, cheaper, more
potent, and more socially acceptable than it used to be. Most smokers start at age 18, and ten years
later, 8% of users have lost control of their cannabis use. Most people smoke cannabis only once in a
while for a short period of time, generally stop in their mid-to-late 20s, and only a few smoke every day
for long periods.
Official name for marijuana
Like sedatives, because it makes you sleepy but it’s not dangerous like a barb. Pharmacologically it’s in a group
by itself. 8% loss control of use and become addicted.
3. Most controversial recreational drug
Nov. 2010: 15 states and DC have approved the legal use of marijuana for medical purposes.
Several states are considering legalization for medical purposes or reducing penalties for possessing
small amounts for personal consumption.
A ballot on November 2, 2010, in California (Proposition 09-0024) to legalize (and tax) marijuana for
recreational consumption, similar to alcohol – failed to pass.
These initiatives would place state laws in conflict with federal statutes.
B. The Plant
1. Three types
a. C. sativa (hemp - tall, woody)
b. Indica (grown in India -shorter & higher THC)
a. Ruderalis (northern Europe & Asia - short growth period, low potency). Are they species or
varieties?
2. Not self-pollinating, female needs pollen from male to reproduce. So the flowers of the female exude
a sticky resin to help catch the males’ pollen and protect the seeds from heat and insects- this contains a
high THC concentration
Should marijuana (or the active drug THC) be made available for recreational use by adults in the United States?
If approved for
recreational use in California, what standards would be established for driving under the influence (DUI),
workplace job testing, and
other situations? What standards should be used to determine legal amounts of combined blood alcohol and THC
in DUI arrests?
• How should society deal with the use of marijuana by those under the age of 21?
Not self pollinating – flowers of female plant put out a sticky resin (THC) that protects the seeds and catches the
pollen of the male plant
3. Active ingredient(s): over 80 cannabinoids known
a. Most common is delta-9 (same as delta-1)- tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)
b. Cannabis products
Hashish and charas: dried resinous exudates of the female flowers; most potent, 10-20% THC
Ganja and sinsemilla: dried material, from tops of female plants; 5-8% THC
Bhang and marijuana: dried remainder of plant; 2-5% THC
Different parts of the plant have different amounts of THC
C. History: Ancient - cultivated and widely dispersed before recorded history
1. Earliest written accounts from China ~2700 B.C.
2. Around 1500 -1000 spread to Southeast Asia, India
3. Scythians brought it to Palestine, Egypt, Russia, and Europe
4. Used for fiber (to make rope, cloth), oil, medicine, and intoxication (the Greek physician Galen
cautioned that its use may lead to “senseless talk”).
5. In Middle Ages it came to the Muslim world and Africa. Said to make you: crave sweets, get “high”,
improve sex and creativity, also decrease the sex drive, produce insanity, and cause an amotivational
syndrome. The term assassin or hashishiyya - probably used to describe common criminals who also
used hashish
This plant has had many uses over the years
6. Modern Era: 1800's
Napoleon’s troops brought back recreational use from wars in Egypt
Became very popular in France – Many wrote similar descriptions of the “high”
Medicinal use was proposed by a young chemistry professor, W.B. O’Shaughnessy, who reported
it was an anticonvulsant and appetite stimulant. It soon was reported to be useful for treating
tetanus, asthma, migraine, addiction, mental illness, etc.
The drug used for recreation and medicine was not thought to be the same as the plant used for hemp. Hemp
was very important because it made good rope and rope was important because ships were crucial to the empire
and ships needed lots of rope. But hemp did not grow well in England, so the American colonies were
encouraged to grow it. Sir Walter Raleigh was ordered to grow it, which he did in the first season, 1611, next to
tobacco. It was a staple crop for over 200 yrs, for rope, clothes and paper. Even George Washington grew it. It
was the major crop before the cotton gin. In 1839 W. B. O'Shaughnessy at the Medical College of Calcutta
observed its use in the indigenous treatment of various disorders and found that tincture of hemp was an effective
analgesic, anticonvulsant, and muscle relaxant.(1) Publication of O'Shaughnessy's paper created a stir within a
medical establishment which at that time had access to only a few effective medicines. In the next several
decades, many papers on cannabis appeared in the Western medical literature. It was widely used until the first
decades of the 20th century, especially as an analgesic and hypnotic. Symptoms and conditions for which it was
found helpful included tetanus, neuralgia, labor pain, dysmenorrhea, convulsions, asthma, and rheumatism.(2)
7. 1900's
Smoking of cannabis introduced to US from Mexico, South and Central America and the SW
In 1914 the Harrison Narcotics Act passed to control opiates - did not include cannabis
Alcohol prohibition may have facilitated use
»Harry Anslinger When prohibition failed, he tried to eradicate cannabis. In 1930,
became commissioner of Federal Narcotics Bureau. Dramatic media attacks led
to Marijuana Tax Act of 1937. Did not directly outlaw cannabis, but imposed a tax
on it. Ended legal medicinal use of cannabis until ~ 1970.
Because older drugs were prohibited, it increased the use of other drugs.
8. Medicinal use was declining anyway
Variable potency
Short shelf life
Oral route less effective than smoking
Better drugs were being discovered
In 1970 - Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act (Controlled Substances Act) reduced
federal penalty for possession from a felony to a misdemeanor.
Some states have further downgraded possession, but the sale is still harshly penalized
D. Pharmacokinetics
1. Administration
a. Enteral - Oral
Very lipid soluble
Larger oral dose needed to have same effect as inhaled, because of first pass effect
b. Parenteral - Inhalation
~ 50% of cannabinoids enter the lungs, almost all of that enters body
Reaches brain in about 30 sec., peaks ~ 30 - 60 min; lasts 2 to 4 hrs; subjective state for 12 hrs
c. Marijuana smoke contains more tars and many of the same carcinogenic compounds identified in tobacco
smoke. A single marijuana cigarette may be more harmful than a single tobacco cigarette because more tar is
inhaled and retained from marijuana. But few marijuana smokers smoke near the frequency that chronic cigarette
smokers smoke cigarettes.
2. Distribution
a. THC is taken out of blood fast and moves into fatty tissue

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Description
Topic 10CannabisA Background1 Most commonly used illegal drug in the worldIn 2009 25 of US teenagers had smoked marijuana in the past month Partnership for a DrugFree America 2010 2 Difficult to classifylike sedatives but not like barbiturates becauseHigh doses may alter perceptions even pain but dont produce anesthesia coma or deathNot much crosstolerance between active ingredient THC and either LSD or barbiturates 3 More people have been smoking cannabis in recent years because its easy to find cheaper more potent and more socially acceptable than it used to beMost smokers start at age 18 and ten years later 8 of users have lost control of their cannabis useMost people smoke cannabis only once in a while for a short period of time generally stop in their midtolate 20s and only a few smoke every day for long periodsOfficial name for marijuanaLike sedatives because it makes you sleepy but its not dangerous like a barb Pharmacologically its in a group by itself8 loss control of use and become addicted3 Most controversial recreational drug Nov 2010 15 states and DC have approved the legal use of marijuana for medical purposesSeveral states are considering legalization for medical purposes or reducing penalties for possessing small amounts for personal consumption A ballot on November 2 2010 in California Proposition 090024 to legalize and tax marijuana for recreational consumption similar to alcoholfailed to pass These initiatives would place state laws in conflict with federal statutes BThe Plant1 Three typesa C sativa hemptall woodyb Indica grown in India shorterhigher THCa Ruderalis northern EuropeAsiashort growth period low potency Are they species or varieties2 Not selfpollinating female needs pollen from male to reproduce So the flowers of the female exude a sticky resin to help catch the males pollen and protect the seeds from heat and insects this contains a high THC concentration Should marijuana or the active drug THC be made available for recreational use by adults in the United States If approved forrecreational use in California what standards would be established for driving under the influence DUI workplace job testing andother situations What standards should be used to determine legal amounts of combined blood alcohol and THC in DUI arrestsHow should society deal with the use of marijuana by those under the age of 21 Not self pollinatingflowers of female plant put out a sticky resin THC that protects the seeds and catches the pollen of the male plant3 Active ingredients over 80 cannabinoids known a Most common is delta9 same as delta1 tetrahydrocannabinol THCb Cannabis productsHashish and charas dried resinous exudates of the female flowers most potent 1020 THCGanja and sinsemilla dried material from tops offemale plants 58 THCBhang and marijuana dried remainder of plant 25 THC Different parts of the plant have different amounts of THCC History Ancientcultivated and widely dispersed before recorded history1 Earliest written accounts from China 2700 BC2 Around 1500 1000 spread to Southeast Asia India3 Scythians brought it to Palestine Egypt Russia and Europe4 Used for fiber to make rope cloth oil medicine and intoxication the Greek physician Galen cautioned that its use may lead to senseless talk5 In Middle Ages it came to the Muslim world and Africa Said to make you crave sweets get high improve sex and creativity also decrease the sex drive produce insanity and cause an amotivational syndrome The term assassin or hashishiyyaprobably used to describe common criminals who also used hashish This plant has had many uses over the years6 Modern Era 1800s Napoleons troops brought back recreational use from wars in Egypt Became very popular in FranceMany wrote similar descriptions of the highMedicinal use was proposed by a young chemistry professor WB OShaughnessy who reported it was an anticonvulsant and appetite stimulant It soon was reported to be useful for treating tetanus asthma migraine addiction mental illness etc The drug used for recreation and medicine was not thought to be the same as the plant used for hemp Hemp was very important because it made good rope and rope was important because ships were crucial to the empire and ships needed lots of rope But hemp did not grow well in England so the American colonies were encouraged to grow it Sir Walter Raleigh was ordered to grow it which he did in the first season 1611 next to tobacco It was a staple crop for over 200 yrs for rope clothes and paper Even George Washington grew it It was the major crop before the cotton gin In 1839 W B OShaughnessy at the Medical College of Calcutta observed its use in the indigenous treatment of various disorders and found that tincture of hemp was an effective analgesic anticonvulsant and muscle relaxant1 Publication of OShaughnessys paper created a stir within a medical establishment which at that time had access to only a few effective medicines In the next several decades many papers on cannabis appeared in the Western medical literature It was widely used until the first
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