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PSYC 4035 Final Study Guide V2

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PSYC 4035
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PSYC 4035Final Study GuideCANNABISABackgroundaMost commonly used illegal drug in the worldi2009 25 of US teenagers had smoked marijuana in last monthbDifficult to classifylike sedatives but not like barbiturates becauseiHigh doses alter perceptions even pain but dont produce anesthesia coma or deathiiNot much crosstolerance bw active ingredient THC and either LSD or barbituratescMost controversial recreational drugi14 states have approved the legal use of marijuana for medicinal purposesiiSeveral other states are considering legalization for medicinal purposes or reducing penalties for possessing small amounts for personal consumptioniiiA ballot is scheduled for public vote on November 2 2010 in California Proposition 090024 to legalize and tax marijuana for recreational consumption similar to alcoholivApproval would be the first time since the repeal of alcohol prohibition some 70 years ago that the public has approved a pullback in the war on drugs vThese initiatives would place state laws in conflict with federal statutesBThe PlantaThree typesiC sativa hemptall woodyiiIndica grown in India shorterhigher THCiiiRuderalis northern EuropeAsiashort growth period low potencybNot selfpollinating female needs pollen from male to reproduce So the flowers of the female exude a sticky resin to help catch the males pollen and protect the seeds from heat and insects this contains a high THC concentrationcActive ingredients over 80 cannabinoids knowniMost common is delta9 same as delta1 tetrahydrocannabinol THCiiCannabis products1Hashish and charas dried resinous exudates of the female flowers most potent 1020 THC2Ganja and sinsemilla dried material from tops offemale plants 58 THC3Bhang and marijuana dried remainder of plant 25 THCCHistory Ancient cultivated and widely dispersed before recorded historyaEarliest written accounts from China 2700 BCbAround 1500 1000 spread to Southeast Asia IndiacScythians brought it to Palestine Egypt Russia and EuropedUsed for fiber to make rope cloth oil medicine and intoxication the Greek physician Galen cautioned that its use may lead to senseless talkeIn Middle Ages it came to the Muslim world and Africa Said to make you crave sweets get high improve sex and creativity also decrease the sex drive produce insanity and cause an amotivational syndrome The term assassin or hashishiyyaprobably used to describe common criminals who also used hashishfThe drug used for recreation and medicine was not thought to be the same as the plant used for hemp Hemp was very important because it made good rope and rope was important because ships were crucial to the empire and ships needed lots of rope But hemp did not grow well in England so the American colonies were encouraged to grow it Sir Walter Raleigh was ordered to grow it which he did in the first season 1611 next to tobacco It was a staple crop for over 200 yrs for rope clothes and paper Even George Washington grew it It was the major crop before the cotton gingModern Era 1800siNapoleons troops brought back recreational use from wars in Egypt iiBecame very popular in FranceMany wrote similar descriptions of the highiiiMedicinal use was proposed by a young chemistry professor WB OShaughnessy who reported it was an anticonvulsant and appetite stimulant It soon was reported to be useful for treating tetanus asthma migraine addiction mental illness etc h1900siSmoking of cannabis introduced to US from Mexico South and Central America and the SWiiIn 1914 the Harrison Narcotics Act passed to control opiatesdid not include cannabisiiiAlcohol prohibition may have facilitated use1Harry Anslinger When prohibition failed he tried to eradicate cannabis In 1930 became commissioner of Federal Narcotics BureauDramatic media attacks led to Marijuana Tax Act of 1937Did not directly outlaw cannabis but imposed a tax on it Ended legal medicinal use of cannabis until1970iMedicinal use was declining anywayiVariable potencyiiShort shelf lifeiiiOral route less effective than smokingivBetter drugs were being discoveredvIn 1970Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act Controlled Substances Act reduced federal penalty for possession from a felony to a misdemeanor viSome states have further downgraded possession but the sale is still harshly penalizedDPharmacokineticsaAdministrationiEnteralOral1Very lipid soluble2Larger oral dose needed to have same effect as inhaled because of first pass effectiiParenteralInhalation1 50 of cannabinoids enter the lungs almost all of that enters body2 Reaches brain in about 30 sec peaks3060 min lasts 2 to 4 hrs subjective state for 12 hrsiiiMarijuana smoke contains more tars and many of the same carcinogenic compounds identified in tobacco smoke A single marijuana cigarette may be more harmful than a single tobacco cigarette because more tar is inhaled and retained from marijuana But few marijuana smokers smoke near the frequency that chronic cigarette smokers smoke cigarettesbDistributioniTHC is taken out of blood fast and moves into fatty tissueii2530 of single dose may remain in fatty tissue for a weekcontinuous doses accumulate in fatmay take2 weeks to leave after use stops Does this produce reverse toleranceiiiAlmost completely metabolized in liver to inactive metabolite and excretedivMay be detected in urine for weeks cannot tell when person was intoxicated1In infrequent smokers less than twice per week urine samples will generally be positive for 1 to 3 days In regular smokers several times per week urine specimens can test positive for 7 to 21 days In chronic smokers daily use for prolonged periods of time can yield positive results for 30 days or longer2If one does not personally smoke marijuana but is exposed to secondhand smoke such exposure will usually not result in a positive result for cannabinoid metabolites in urine Thus a positive urine test does not necessarily mean that a person was under the influence of marijuana at the time the urine specimen was collected there is little or no correlation between the presence of carboxyTHC in urine and the presence of a pharmacologically significant amount of THC in the blood This can become quite important in certain legal situations such as charges of driving while under the influence of marijuanav Although research into the psychoactive components of Cannabis began before the start of this century it was not until 1964 that Dr Raphael Mechoulam of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem identified delta9tetrahydrocannabinol THC as the most active compound
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