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The First Biological Psychiatry (97% in the course

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PSYC 4039
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The First Biological Psychiatry 18501900Continuity vs discontinuityShorter sees the end of the first biological psychiatry as discontinuity oThe title of chapter 3 The First Biological Psychiatry implies a discontinuity in the development of psychiatry a discontinuous growthThe teacher sees it as continuity because the research was still mainly biologicalFrom 1850 to 1900 it went from biological psychiatry then it went through a revolution and then back to biologicalDuring this time period there were developments in 4 areasoGenetics in mental illnessoNeuroanatomyphysical causes of mental illnessoNeurochemistrythe idea was starting that mental illness had a neurochemical basisoClinicaldescriptive methodthis was started by Kraepelin and was what eventually overthrew biological psychiatryGenetic madnessIt was long observed that genetic madness ran along family lines and had a genetic basis that was passed from parent to offspringThe earlier psychiatrists such as Battie believed thisThis belief promoted new ideas that developed during this timeoDegenerationoEvolutionoEugenicsDegenerationThe idea that genetic disorders get worse as they pass through successive generations at this point they believed in inheritance of acquired characteristicsMorel a French psychologist proposed a degenerative sequence in which mental illness is seen as the end state of the deteriorationstoCriminality 1 generationndoSexual perversion 2 generationrdoMental illness 3 generationThis concept stigmatized the mentally ill and created a fear and loathing of psychiatrists early roots of antipsychiatryoCreated shameoCaused people to hide mentally ill family members and deny family illnessesoCreated fear and distrust for psychiatrists because they were able to diagnose people and give them a label which tainted the familyoSometimes psychiatrists abused their powers and falsely accused people of illnessesBy 1920 degeneration was largely discredited in psychiatry but the idea was advanced by othersEvolutionMany people anticipated this theory before Charles Darwin but he was the one who put it all togetherLife is a struggle for survivalthere is competition with other members of a species for limited resourcesThere is genetic variation in physical and physiological traits phenotypesoIndividuals are genetically varied and some traits are heritableNatural selectionsurvival of the fittestoThose born with certain traits do well with lifes strugglesoThe goal of life is to perpetuate your genes for the survival of the next generation differential survival of genotypesUnits of selectionoSocial Darwinismone social unit competes with another social unit and the fittest one survives also called social evolutionThis idea took off big in the US and Europe but it was ultimately harmful because countries are now ranked according to their pecking order oHerbert SpencerBritish philosopher and one of the first sociologistsHe applied Darwins theories to societiesHe coined the term survival of the fittest and believed that societies evolved through competition and extinctionThis concept was used to justify unrestrained economic competition wealthpowerfitness and against aid to the unproductive weak and sick members of societyHis focus was not on species but rather on higher units like countriesProblemthe rights of the individuals that make up a society are insubordinateoSpeciesIt is usually quite rare for individuals to be concerned with thisoIndividualIndividual survival is primarily what matters the mostoGeneThis is the most basic and elemental unit of selectionElemental selection leads to reformation of fitnessFitnessreproductive success how successful an individual is in promoting the gene being passed down the representation of genes in future generations measured by the success of passing on your genes
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