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TEST 2 (got 94% in the course)

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PSYC 4070
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TEST 22 covers Chapters 8 910111214Piaget1Same 4 stages in the same order invariant sequence2Stages differ qualitatively3Go up a stage only when mature enough and had the right experience The set of experience that one person needs may be different than anothers needs4Without relevant experiences cant reach highest stage He went away from rigid stages and sub stagesPreschool Physical development 26 years oldMost societies dont start school until age 6Preschoolers still learning motor skills eating dressing and how to use paper and pencilEyes are not ready for lengthy close work They need both active play and rest They are sill mastering their bodiesLearning1 modifies brain cells and behavior a process that continues through life2Experience constantly changes brain circuitry the brain plasticity is linked to memory3Brain plasticity and behavior influenced by pre and postnatal experience drugs hormone maturation aging diet disease and stress4Understanding how these factors affect the brain help us understand normal and abnormal developmentThe Brain1Neuron transmits electrochemical messages when dendrites stimulated by other neurons Shapes vary with function and location Unused neurons need energy and oxygenaGlial cells interneuron important in brain development function and growthbDendrites branch like growth receive messages from other neuronscSoma cell body controls cell metabolismdNucleus chromosomes contained withineAxonaxon carries messages to other cells Action potential travels 200 ms down the axonfEnd bulbs terminal vesicles contains neurotransmitters At the end of axons release transmitters substance after an action potential gSynaptic gap small space where neurotransmitters released are into the gap and either exciteinhibit the next neuronhmyelin sheath a white waxy substance along the axon More recently evolved in higher animals Makes the axon go faster and older parts myelinated first Brains association areas are last in early adulthoodiNodes of Ranvier gaps in between the myelin sheathMost psychoactive drugs mimic or effect neurotransmittersLearning alters synaptic efficiency increases nerve impulse speed2Growth and activationsta1 monthsyears major brain growth spurts particularly in the cortex ex cortical dendrites increase 5x in the first 2 years Transient exuberancebPrenatalInfant neurogenesis and migration doesnt end brain growth Newbornpreschooler lacks neural networks for thinking in older peoplecSynaptogenesis synaptic connections grow between neurons Once neurons are at final destinations axons and dendrites develop linking to other neurons Only weeks after neurogenesis rapid synaptogenesis starts then tapers off in some regions only after 3 years of age Early synaptogenesis
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