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Exam 1 Notes

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Religious Studies
REL 1004
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Week 1119This CourseHebrew Biblecollection of written texts in ancient Hebrewfrom 1000 BCE to 100 BCE also known as Old TestamentstSurvey of Hebrew Bible1 Third we will study the Torahndnd2 Third we will study Joshua2 Kingsrd3 Third we will study the rest of the HBHistorical survey of the HB not a devotional approachCritical surveyCanon of the BibleAConcept of the canon1Formal definition of canonThe canon is the fixed list of books in the bible regarded as sacred and authoritative by Jews and Christians2Distinction between canon and scriptureScripturea body of religious literature that is open to change Scripture might grow when new works are added but it can also shrink when old works are increasingly ignored or even dropped Before ancient Jews and Christians had a canon they had scriptureand their scripture was open to changeCanona fixed body of religious literature It is closedAt some point the Jewish culture closed their scripture therefore leading to the birth of the canon of their bible Later Christians did the same thing There are several canons of the bible because there are several different Jewish and Christian groups disagree on what is considered the canonBMajor canons of the BibleAJewish canonHebrewBibleEstablished by the rabbis in Palestine ca 100CENumber of books in the Jewish canon 2439 Depends on how you divide the books 39Order of the books three major sectionsTorah LawInstruction or the PentateuchProphetsFormer Prophets JoshuaKingsLatter Prophets Isaiah Jeremiah etcThe WritingsPrinciple of selection1 The Rabbis thought that only books in Hebrew should go into the bible2 The Rabbis probably thought that the bible ought to contain only books that were reviewed and revered by mostly Jews3 Books that get into the canon ought to be divine revelationonly books that derived from God himself or books that are thought to be inspired by the prophetic spirit4 Books in the canon ought to date to the time of Ezra the priest or earlier Ezra the priestaround 400 BCE5 The canon can only contain those books whose content agrees with proper Jewish faith and proper Jewish practice They had to agree with rabbinic Judaism121BCatholic canon OTNT1Set by bishops in church councils ca 3501550 CE2Selection based heavily on the Septuagintthe ancient Greek version of the BibleThere are 7 extra books in addition to the 39 They are called the Deuterocanonical Books Not in the Jewish canon 3Number of books4Order of the books four major sectionsaPentateuch GenesisDeuteronomybHistorical books Joshua Ruth 12 Samuel 12 Kings 12 Chronicles Ezra Nehemiah Tobit etccWisdom books Psalms Job Proverbs Ecclesiastes Song Sirach WisdomdProphets Isaiah Jeremiah Ezekial Daniel Hosea Joel Amos etc5Principles of organization Why this organization The bishops adopted the principle that the books of like kind go together Chronicles Ruth Ezra Nehemiah all look like history so put them with other books that look like history Same with Daniel looking propheticetc Also the Pentateuch focuses on the very distant past The Historical Books also look backward but not as far back as the Pentateuch The Wisdom books dont look backwards and not forwards their focus is on the present They advise and instruct for everyday life The Prophets focus into the future There is a progression in focus from the past to the present and then to the future in the catholic old testament By putting the prophets at the end of the OT is a good segway to the NTCProtestant canon OT NT1Set mainly by Martin Luther 1500sThe 39 books of the HB are also the same 39 books used in the protestant canon but he organized them according to the catholic canon He took out the deuterocanonical booksHe translated them to German2Protestant OT is a hybridSimilarities to both the HB and the catholic OT3Luthers delimmaNot on test Luthers motto was sola scriptula it means scripture alone He meant that the Bible should be the only basis for deciding church doctrinebeliefs Dont look to tradition or to the great theologians of the past or past popes But when it comes to which books go into the Bible the Bible does not guide one to which books should go into the Bible So he decided to follow the position of the great St Jerome also the bible that the early Christians and Jesus read were the 39 books of HB But when Jesus lived there was no canon yet so Luther was wrong Translation and Text Criticism of the Hebrew BibleMany modern translations eg KJV NIVNEBJPSVRSVNRSVJBTIAPurposes of different English translationsWhy so many translations Different translations serve different purposes some try to follow the exact translation of the HB They try to be literal However some translations try to produce the best quality of English They try to capture the meaning of the Hebrew translation while producing easy smooth English Some want to make the Bible more gender neutral NRSV Some translators made the bible more maleish than it really was BSubjective judgment in translation1Meaning of rare Hebrew words is uncertainIts hard to determine the exact meaning of some words that are very rare Paseem appears twice in the HB Translators have to make their best guess on what it meansGreek translators took the word to mean multicolored or ornament But other translators take the word to mean long sleeved or ankle length 2Meaning of a Hebrew word or phrase is something ambiguousSome words have multiple meanings so sometimes one must determine what it means in a particular passage 3The Hebrew text itself ie its exact wording is sometimes in doubtWhen we compare different manuscripts we find disagreements and discrepancies in the exact wording When we take the original passage and the ancient translations of the original passage they often do not agree As if they are not translating the same Hebrew So translators have to decide which translation should be followedCText criticismthe exercise of deciding which words are in the Hebrew text that we will translate It is based on1Awareness of common types of scribal errors egaDittography eg 2 Kings 1817Tired scribe writes a phrase or word once or twice by mistakebHaplography eg 1 Kings 41920The opposite haplography a scribe is supposed to write something twice he did not or left it out completelycHomoioteleuton eg 1 Samuel 1441The scribe leaves out some sentences due to the word where he stopped appears a few lines downdGraphic confusion eg 2 Kings 166Similarities in the Hebrew letters can cause confusion of which letter should truly be read2Knowledge of textualaThe Masoretic textMTstndThe version of the Hebrew text used today Goes back to the 1 or 2 century CEThe Lenegrad CodexbDead Sea ScrollsQ Ms194748 the first Dead Sea Scroll was found Copies of this text go stndback to the 1 or 2 century BCE Older than the Lenegrad CodexcSamaritan Pentateuch SamdSeptuagint GKGreekeVulgateVGLatin St Jerome 400fTargumsTGAramaic gPeshittaSyrSyriac
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