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Spring 2013 Final Exam Notes

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Religious Studies
REL 2027
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1FINAL EXAM NOTESCHINESE RELIGIONSPrehistoryoAgrarian tribes 5000 BCEoShang Dynasty 16001122first recorded dynastyCenter in North Central ChinaUnique characteristicsWritten language based on pictographscharactersMetal workLarge fortified townsoClass stratifiedwarriors over agricultural peasantryReligion of harmony between family state naturecosmosoHarmony is a Chinese concept meaning balancetolerance of diversityoReligion comes out of folk practicesoNot a formal religious tradition but expressions of hope communal solidarity securityoReligion of FamilyAgricultural ritessacrifices all the way back to the Shang DynastyRelated to seasons supplication of godsAncestor worshipunique to East AsiaBronze vessels back to Shang Dynastycontained offerings of food to ancestorsConsulted ancestors throughwith oracle bones or tortoise shellsthey were heated with a hot poker until they cracked and the pattern was interpreted for answers to the questionsZu lineagebasis for ancestor worshippersonal survivaloFamilyoriented far more than European societiesoNetwork of powerrelationshipsaccumulate power through generations because they are worshipped by those who survive themoPatrilinearline of descent goes through the fatheroPatrilocalwhen a woman marries her and her children live with her husbands family and she ceases worship of her fathers ancestors and worships her husbands insteadWomen become invisibleoPatriarchalmale power makes decisions for the lineageMaintained with ancestral temple with wooden table This is why families refused to migrate very farLicodes of conductappropriateness for lineagesA moral code exists within the familyis a basis for civil codes as welloReligion of Statemingles with familyShangdi Supreme RulerShang Dynasty deity an ancestor of the emperorA similar hierarchy of lineage also exists in the spirit worldZhou Dynasty overthrows in 1122 BCEConquest effected by King WuDid not destroy remnants of the Shang DynastyCentral Religious ConceptsoTian Heaven Skyimpersonal moral force that rewards virtuepunishes nonvirtue ruling principle of justiceoHou JiRuler of Grain aka millet deityHe is put together with the Shang deity Huang Tian Shang DiSovereign HeavenSupreme Ruler2oMandate of Heavenruling principle divine reward for good rulershipoQuid pro quobetween heavenearth an agreement between godhumans Ex Hebrew covenantoReligion of NatureCosmosMajor religious concepts of the Western Zhou PeriodTian Heavenimpersonal principle moral universal justicerighteousnessDao The Wayprinciple of liveliness power virtue rightness of what is trueappropriate of what appears in natureoDao expressed throughYangYincomplementary oppositesNo deity process includes formless to form The primal energy of the Dao is expressed in nature as Chi wind breath flowing vital energypresent in all beings represents the innate way of thingsYANGYINMaleFemaleLightDarkActiveInactiveHeatColdYang soul from Yin soul from po hun to shento kueiBoth the yangyin souls exist within every person At the time of death you become either a shen ancestral spirit or a kuei ghost troublesome spiritMust appease both souls with offeringsworshipForms of DivinationOracle bonesFeng shui windwatergeomancy enhancing good fortune through the placement of structures power of nature used to bless human actions permits the flow of chiSpirit mediumshipcertain people display sensitivity toward spirits spirits can speak through a personoThe extreme form is possessionoMediums are male in Chinafemale in JapanYi Jingancient collection of aphorismsreadings that can be consulted through different meansoRead patternthe answers will come via line readingsunbrokenbroken lineso8 trigrams giving rise to 64 hexagrams with subheadingsoChien pure yangcreative heavenforce dragonoookun pure yinyielding earth mareo o
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