PSY 201 Study Guide - Final Guide: Hans Selye, Reinforcement, Groupthink

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Study Guide for PSY 201 – Exam 3
Chapter 10 Human Development
Developmental Psychology Research Methods
Nature-Nurture genetic predispositions can drive us to select and create particular
environments that influence our behavior, leading to the mistaken appearance of ur pure
effect of nature.
Teratogens – an environmental factor that can exert a negative impact on parental
Critical & sensitive periods
Imprinting – possible sensitive periods for healthy interpersonal relationships.
(Duck off TOM & JERRY)
Piaget stages (SPCF)
1. Sensorimotor – (B - 2yrs) Here and now, major milestone in mental respiration.
2. Preoperational – (2 - 7yrs) Ability to construct mental reps of experiences.
3. Concrete Operational – (7 - 11yrs) Can perform mental operations, but only for
actual physical events.
4. Formal Operations – (11 - +) Can understand hypothetical reasoning beyond the
here and now.
Assimilation - Acquire new knowledge within stage.
Accommodation - Can no longer assimilate new info. – Make new schema/concept.
Object Permanence - understanding that objects continue to exist even when they
cannot be observed (seen, heard, touched, smelled or sensed in any way).
Conservation – Piagetian tasks requiring children understand that despite transformation
in physical presentation of an amount, the amount remains the same.
Egocentrism - inability to perform mental operations.
Parenting styles
Permissive – Lenient, little discipline, affectionate.
Authoritarian – Very strict, punishing, little affection.
Authoritati ve – Supportive, but firm limits.
Undivided – Neglectful and ignoring.
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Harlow’s study of attachment with monkeys
- Soft mother, hard mother. One had milk one didn’t, but the monkey would rather
stay with mother that was soft and comforting.
Chapter 11 Motivation & Emotion
Drive – Everyone wants and needs; that propel us in specific directions.
Incentive - Reinforcer
Intrinsic – Things you want without benefit.
Extrinsic – Money, trophies, etc.
Goals - Aspirations
Need for Achievement
Theories of emotion
James-Lange - Emotions result from our interpretations of our bodily reactions to
Cannon-Bard – We use our “gut reactions” to help us determine how we should act.
Two Factor – Emotions are produced by an undifferentiated state of arousal along with
an attribution (explanation) of that arousal.
Facial Expressions
Facial Emotion Mental state or feeling associated with our evaluation of our
Discrete emotions theory – humans experience a small number of distinct emotions that
are rooted in their biology.
Mere exposure effect – liking a more familiar stimuli; seeing someone all the time.
Maslow’s hierarchy of needs PS-BES
1. Physiological Needs
2. Safety Needs
3. Belonging Needs
4. Esteem Needs
5. Self-Actualization
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Chapter 12 Health
Stress Response to stressors (stimuli) - Tension, discomfort, or physical symptom that
arise as a stressor strains our ability to cope effectively.
Stressors – Type of stimulus - strains our ability to cope effectively.
Positive stress (Eustress) challenging yet not overwhelming (Athletes, giving a
speech, etc.) Provides opportunity for growth.
Corticosteroids Stress hormone that activates the body and prepares us for stressful
Social Readjustment Rating Scale & Health - measures stressors based on the idea that
stressors are stimuli.
General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS) Stress response pattern proposed by Hans
Selye that consists of 3 stages: alarm, resistance, and exhaustion.
Type A behavior – Describes people who are competitive, driven, hostile, and
ambitious. HIGH RISK OF CHD (Coronary Heart Disease).
Effects of Social Support – Relationships with people and groups that can provide us
with emotional comfort and personal and financial resources.
Factors Affecting Wellness QCAE, QUE?
1. Quit Smoking
2. Curbing Drinking
3. Achieve Healthy Weight
4. Exercise
Chapter 13 Social Psychology
Conformity – Tendency of people to change their behavior as a result of the group
Diffusion of Responsibility – Reduction in feeling of personal responsibility in the
presence of others. (NOT HELPING SOMEONE IN NEED)
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