BIO 110 Lecture 1: Anatomy and Physio I- Part1 of course 2021
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Anatomy and Physiology I - Part 1 of course 2021
Module 1. — READ CHAPTER 1 ONLY !
Lecture 1. —- Do textbook reading !
Anatomy - investigates body structure !
Physio - processes/functions of living things (your body)!
11 total organ systems!
"-cell physio (smallest structure of functional living thing - understand cell can under-
stand whole body)!
"-neurophysiology - focus on nervous system!
"-cardiovascular - heart and blood vessels!
"-gross/macroscopic - see w/o microscope !
" " - Regional - studied area by area!
" " - Systemic - studied system by system [this course]!
" " -Surface - external form and relation to deeper structures !
"-Microscopic - see w/microscope !
" " - cytology - cellular anatomy!
" " -histology - study of tissues!
In Anatomy and physio!
"-pathology - structural and functional changes caused by disease process!
"-Exercise Physio - body changes when exercised regularly !
Chemical level - interaction of atoms (electrons/protons/neutrons) — will build the cells !
"**atoms -> molecules -> cell!
Cell level; structural and functional unit of living organisms!
Tissue Level - group of similar cells and materials surrounding them!
Organ level: one or more tissues functioning together (similar tissue)!
Organ system level: group of organs functioning together!
Organism level: any living thing !
Characteristics of life:!
Organization : condition in which there are speciﬁc relationships and functions !
Metabolism: all chemical reactions of the body!
Responsiveness/irritability: ability to sense changes and adjust !
Growth: increase in size and or number of cells!
Development: change in organism over time!
"-Diﬀerentiation: change from general to speciﬁc!
"-Morphogenesis: change in shape of tissues, organs!
Reproduction : new cells or new organisms !
Lecture 2 — do textbook reading !
*Homeostasis , dynamic constancy - existence and maintenance of a relatively constant envi-
ronment within the body !
"- it ﬂuctuates!
"- ideal area/set point - normal range for an individual —> BODY always wants to bring
us back to our set point !!!
" " - WHAT IS set point for body temp? - normally 98.6F/37C (set point) but it ﬂuc-
tuates throughout the day !
"-Digestive - oral cavity/mouth, salivary glands, esophagus, stomach, intestines (small/
" " -Fn: Mechanical (chew, stomach churning - digesting) and chemical (saliva and
acid in stomach - break food down chemically), Absorption of nutrients into body after food
broken down !
"-Respiratory - nose (air enter), larynx , trachea , lungs!
" " -Fn: exchange of O2 and CO2 !
"-Cardiovascular - heart , blood vessels (arteries - carry O2, veins-carry less O2)!
" " -Fn: transportation of blood gases (from respiratory system) , transport nutrients
and waste products !
"-Urinary - kidneys, ureter, bladder, urethra !
" " -Fn: removal of waste by urine, helps us regulate the pH of the blood (pH=per-
centage of hydrogen, more hydrogen have = more acidic blood is)!
"-Reproductive - male: prostate gland, testes, ductis deﬀerens (tube helps transport
sperm out of body/interrupted during vasectomy) — create sperm cells female: mammary
gland, uterine tubes, ovaries , uterus —> development of egg/oocytes !
"""sperm + egg = baby !
"-Lymphatic - circulatory system of substances/lymph !
" " organs: thymus gland, tonsils, spleen, lymph nodes !
" " -Fn: removes foreign substances from the blood /houses immune system , helps
maintain ﬂuid balance, allows us to absorb fats /helper of digestive system !
"-Integumentary (largest system) - hair , skin, sweat glands !
" " -Fns: protection, temp regulation (sweat glands=perspiration)!
"-Skeletal - skeleton/bones — skull, ribs, collar bone etc!
" " -Fns: protection (ribs surround lungs/heart), body movements (muscles useless
w/o skeletal system)!
"-Muscular - made of muscles ; 3 types: skeletal, cardiac, smooth (in organs) - ex. bi-
ceps, pectorals major !
" " -Fns: (skeletal muscles attach to skeleton) produces body movements , pro-
duces body heat (muscle contraction gives oﬀ heat, helps to maintain body temp)!
"-Nervous - brain, spinal cord, nerves - MAJOR regulatory system - manage other 10
organ systems [function!!]—use nerve impulse for regulation (quicker since electrical messages)!
"-Endocrine - Pituitary gland, thyroid gland (for metabolism) , adrenal gland (adrenaline),
pancreas (handle sugar like insulin); major regulator — use hormones for regulation (travel thru
cardiovascular system; take longer)!
—For ch.1 - be able to identify 11 systems, talk about major structure and functions in
Lecture 3 —- Do Textbook Reading !
Feedback Systems — used to maintain homeostasis !
-Positive - keep doing it - so essentially, keep moving away from set pt/from homeostasis.
Moving in other direction from Neg. feedback !
-Unusual in normal, healthy individuals bc not returning to set pt and can result in death !
-Ex. Of normal pos feedback = childbirth - newborn start stretching uterus which is
muscle so receptors stimulated and send msg that need to contract and baby starts to
move out of birth canal - we don’t want contractions to stop until baby expelled so !
-Ex of harmful pos feedback= after hemorrhage - BP drops and hearts ability to pump
blood decreases (clotting items/cells stick to wall of blood vessel so pos feedback says
to keep going = stop hemmorhage ) !
-Negative - stop what doing or slow down— DOMINANT Feedback system, most closely as-
sociated with healthy body. Any deviation from the set point is made smaller or resisted !
"-Receptor - monitors the value of some variable (i.e. variable=heat receptor to monitor
heat in room, pain receptor, movement receptor)!
"-Control center- establishes the set point (brain)!
"-Eﬀector - can change the value of the variable (i.e. in hot room, heat receptors send
message to brain that hot, brain sends message to sweat gland =eﬀector)!
"-Stimulus - deviation from the set point; detected by the receptor [what cause this
whole thing to start]!
"-Response - produced by the eﬀector [i.e. sweat gland turned on and perspiring to
*negative feedback [Feedback loop]!
"-receptor: i.e. receptor on aorta on heart sensitive to pressure !
" " if receptors stimulated by too much or too little pressure then the message con-
tacts nervous system —> brain stem (control center)!
""Eﬀector will be heart muscle [low BP then want heart muscle to work harder]!
stimulus—> receptor —> Control center—>eﬀector!
Normals can change w/o causing disease !
(normal BP at rest, normal BP during exercise, normal BP after exercise) - have set pt and
don’t want to move to far from it but can at times/reasons to move away from it, and have
normals for where set pt should be when exerting and how quickly can return to it !