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Study Guide

Criminal Justice
Course Code
CJ 235

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Exam 1 Study Guide FCE 225
Human Development Basics
4 Goals of Developmental Psychologists
1.) To describe the changes that typically occur across the life span
2.) To explain the changes
3.) To predict developmental changes
4.) To be able to use their knowledge to intervene in the course of events in order
to control them
7 Characteristics of the Life-Span Perspective
Development is:
1.) Life long: No age period dominates development
2.) Multi-dimensional: Development consists of biological, cognitive,
socioemotional, and spiritual dimensions
3.) Multidirectional: Some aspects of development increase, while others
4.) Plastic: Depending on the individuals life conditions, development may take
many paths
5.) Historically-embedded: Development is influenced by historical conditions
6.) Multidisciplinary: Psychologists, sociologists, anthropologists, neuroscientists,
and medical researchers all study human development and share a concern
for unlocking the mysteries of development across a life span
7.) Contextual: The individual continually responds to and acts on contexts,
which include a persons biological makeup, physical environment, and social,
historical and cultural contexts
3 fundamental domains of human development
1.) Physical development: involves change that occurs in a persons body
2.) Cognitive development: involves changes that occur in mental activity
3.) Emotional-social development: includes changes in an individuals
personality, emotions, and relationships with others
Timing of developmental events
Normative age-graded influences
-Includes physical, cognitive, and psychosocial changes at predictable ages
-Ex: puberty, bar mitzvah, going to college
Normative history-graded influences
-Historical events, epidemics, and economic depressions, that affect large
numbers of individuals about the same time
-Ex: baby boomer, 9/11/01
Non-normative life events
-Set of unique turning points at which people change some direction in their life
-Ex:Sudden death, win lottery
Developmental Research
-Used to assess changes over an extended period of time

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Scientific method
-Series of steps that allows us to be clear about what we studied, how we studied
it, and what our conclusions were
3 Primary Research Methods
-Used to study the same individuals at different points in their lives
-Allows researchers to describe change sequentially and offers insight into
why people turn out similarly or differently in adulthood
-Selective attrition: Individuals who dropout tend to be different than those
who remain
-Dropout: People become ill or die, dropout, move, or become
-Time consuming and costly
-Testing and tester consistency
-Compares different groups of people of different ages at the same point in time
-Less costly and time consuming than longitudinal studies
-Confounding of age and cohort
-Measures more than one age cohort over time
-Overcomes the problem of confounding age and cohort
-Costly and complex to plan and analyze over time
5 Other Research Designs
-Investigator manipulates one or more variables and measures the resulting
changes in the other variables to a attempt to determine the cause of a specific
-One of the most rigorously objective research designs
-Difficult to control for some variables
-Requires adherence to ethical standards
-Human behavior in lab may not reflect real-life behavior
-Costly and time consuming
Naturalistic Observation
-Intensive observation of the behavior of people in their natural setting
-Lack of control
-No independent variable

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-Focuses on a single individual’s development over time
-Difficult to generalize from one individual
-Familiarity of subject and research comprises objectivity
Social Survey
-Survey of a sample of individuals
-Low response rate
-Compares data from two or more societies or cultures
-Variability of quality of data
-Research questions may not be applicable
-Seldom provides information on individual differences
Ethics in research
Informed Consent
-Researcher must obtain written consent to participate from each participant
-At any time during the research, the participant can withhold his or her consent
-Researchers must tell all individuals the purpose of the research and the risks
and benefits of participation, emphasize the voluntary nature of participation,
and provide them with a way to communicate with a key person involved in the
-Participants must be able to understand what they are being asked to do, as
well as its purpose, risks, benefits, and results
Right to Privacy
-Participants must be assured that the information they share and all research
records of their behaviors will be kept confidential
-Set of interrelated statements that provides an explanation for a class of events
-Allows us to organize our observations and to deal meaningfully with information
that would otherwise be chaotic and useless
-See relationships among facts and uncover implications that would not
otherwise be evident in isolated bits of data
-Stimulates inquiry as we search for knowledge about many different and often
puzzling aspects of behavior
-Inspires research that can be used to verify, disprove, or modify that theory
Psychoanalytic Theory
-View that personality is fashioned progressively as the individual passes through
various psychosexual stages
-Focus on the importance of early experience in forming the personality and the
role of unconscious motivation
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