Chapter 4: Policing; Purpose and Organization
The purpose of policing in democratic societies:
Preventing and investigating crimes
o Crime prevention is a proactive approach to the problem of
crime – it is the “anticipation, recognition and appraisal of a
crime risk and initiation of action to remove and reduce it”
o The arrest or take into custody
Protecting and aiding the public – provide the community with the
needed enforcementrelated services
o Compstat – a crime analysis and police management process
built on crime mapping that was developed by the NYPD
Ensuring domestic peace and tranquility
o Quality of life offen (petty crimes) are minor law violations
that demoralize residents and businesspeople by creating
disorder or by reflecting social decay.
Enforcing and supporting the laws
o Police officers not only have to enforce the laws but also
support them. Their personal actions of law enforcement
personnel should be exemplary and should inspire others to
respect and obey the law.
Each agency has their own objectives and goals.
Three levels of policing:
a. 105k full time officers
2. State (some of
a. 82k full time officers (70% sworn)
3. Local (city, township police departments)
a. 581k full time officers (80% sworn)
Federal law enforcement agencies
Department of the Treasury (people who don’t pay taxes)
Treasury Inspector General for Tax Enforcement
Department of Justice DEA
Department of Interior
US Park Police
National Park Service
Fish & Wildlife Services
Department of Defense
(defense on crimes against people in their service) (Army, Navy, Air force,
US Postal Service
Postal Inspections Service
Metropolitan Police Department
FBI (Federal Bureau of Investigation)
1924 J. Edgar Hoover is appointed Director
Identification Division is created to collect fingerprint files
1930 FBI begins collecting crime data for Uniform Crime Report publication
1932 Crime Lab established
Purpose of FBI (2003)
1. Protecting the US from terrorist Attack
2. Protecting the US against foreign intelligence operations and
3. Protecting the US against cyberbased attacks and hightechnology
4. Combating public corruption at all levels
5. Protecting civil rights
6. Combating transnational and national criminal organizations and
7. Combating major whitecollar crime
8. Combating violent crimes that are wide
State Law Enforcement
(1835 Texas Ranger)
Believes to be the first state police force
Border patrol responsibilities
Apprehended Mexican cattle rustlers
Centralized Model – one head quarter that gives direction to all the other units
Decentralized Model – all units are equal Local Police Agencies
13,580 different departments
420,000 sworn police officers
NY has the largest police agencies ▯37,000
Smallest = 3409 departments just have 1 officer
Largest sheriffs department is LA (Emma<3)
o Sheriffs department = are responsible for court room
security and running the country jail
o A sheriff is the elected chief officer of a count law enforcement
agency. The sheriff is usually responsible for law enforcement
in unincorporated areas and for the operation of the county
Typical Organizational Structure of a Police Department
1.City council, mayor, police commission
2.Chief of police
4.Patrol division –
Criminal investigation – major crimes, narcotics, juveniles
Support services – crime prevention, gangs, drug EDU, child abuse, domestic violence
Specialty support bomb squad
Chain of command the unbroken line of authority that extends through all levels of
an organization from the highest to the lowest.
Span of control the number of police personnel or the number of units supervised by a
Different Styles of Policing
James Q Wilson
1. Watchman style
a. Controlling illegal and disruptive behavior
b. Primary goal – order maintenance includes:
i. Often use informal police intervention
ii. Characteristics of lowerclass communities
2. Legalistic style
a. Primary goal – enforcing letter of the law
b. “Laissez faire policing”
i. “Hands off” approach unless behavior violates the law
ii. Faire policing avoids disputes that are not violations of the law
3. Service style a. Primary goal reflect need of community
b. Police are helpers (Mr. Grattan)
c. Work cooperatively with social service agencies
d. Often found in wealthy communities
e. Police are well paid/educated
As communities change ▯the police styles should change
Fusion center a multiagency law enforcement facility design to enhance cooperative
efforts through a coordinated process for collecting, sharing and analyzing information in
order to develop actionable intelligence.
Line operations the field activities or supervisory activities directly related to daytoday
Staff operations Activities (such as administration and training) that provide support
for the line operations.
Fleeing Felon Doctrine – rule that allows the use of deadly force to prevent the escape of
a suspected felon.
Abuses of Authority acts of corruptions, which further the goals of the police agency
Scientific police management = application of social scientific techniques to study
The old days – it was us vs. them
Now community oriented = strategic policing, problemsolving policing
PCR – policecommunity relations ▯area of policing activity the recognized the
need for the community and the police to work TOGETHER effectively and is based on
the notion that the police derive their legitimacy from the community they serve.
If they are not apart of the community, who legit are you?
How much trust does the community have in you?
Team policing= the reorganization of conventional patrol strategies into “an
integrated and versatile police team assigned to a fixed district”
Problemsolving policing= takes the view that mnay crimes are caused by
existing social conditions in the communities.
Strategic policing= retains the traditional police goal of professional crime
fighting but enlarges the enforcement target to include nontraditional kinds of criminals
(gangs, computer crimes, white collar, serial offenders) Community policing= partnership between the police and the community – to
WORK TOGETHER on solving crimes and disorder.
Hawawii does not have a state police department only country sheriff.
Critique of Community Policing
Not totally accepted
o By officers
o By public officials
Increased problem load
1967 LEAA – funded police project and law enforcement agencies.
1974▯(Kansas City Patrol Experiment) ▯ measures the effectiveness of random
patrol ▯seguated policed patrolling
Evidence Based Policing ▯the use of the best available research on the outcomes of
police work to implement guidelines and evaluate agencies, units and officers.
Research ▯Evaluate + Implement
Police Discretion ▯the exercise of choice in the disposition of suspects
Direct patrol▯ a police management strategy designed to increase the productivity of
patrol officers through the scientific analysis and evaluation of patrol techniques.
Kansas City Patrol Experiment = Preventative Patrol does not affect citizen’s
fear of crime.
Profiling was originally intended to identify drug courier’s.
Chapter 5: Policing Legal Aspects
Legal Restraints – the US Constitution is designed to protect citizens against
abuses of police power
In the 60’s the Supreme Court clarified individual rights in the face of
Bill of Rights and democratically inspired legal restraints maintain individual
Bill of Rights – given to the first ten amendments to the US constitution
which are considered especially important in the processing of criminal defendants.
Required by 4,5,6 and 14 Amendments Constitution Protection
1. People are to be secure in their homes
2. People are to be protected against unreasonable searches and seizures
On a search warrant – they need a specific description of the house and specific details
as to why you are searching the residence. You have to PROVE you know whose
residence it is (ex, mail)
Warrant = a write issued by a judicial officer directing a law enforcement officer
to perform a specified act and affording the officer protection from damages if he or she
Writ of Certiorari ▯the Court order the record of a lower court case to be prepared for
o Search Warrant Exceptions searches incident to arrest(right
at arrest officer can take weapons etc), consent search (if
individual gives consent(mom at grad party)), exigent
circumstances searches or emergency searches(hit and run
and getting the ‘runner’—plain view applies), vehicle
searches(more strict)(the standard to search a vehicle is less
than one to sew1arch a home)
o Plain View Doctrine if you are searching for something and
see something else, you can seize it. If you can see if from
outside – it is a ‘good to go’.
Arizona v. Hicks 1987 = Hicks arrested when
police entered his apartment to check report of gun fire
– the officers believe they see two stolen stereo system.
The police write down the serial numbers because it is
plainly visible. Second stereo has to be moved to see
serial number. – ended up being stolen ▯Hicks is
arrested and is convicted of possession of stolen
• Super court decision upheld appeal decision
justification: officer’s behavior became illegal
when he moved the stereo to record serial
numbers. ONCE YOU’VE MOVED
SOMEHTING – YOU HAVE GONE
BEYOND PLAIN VIEW.
Arrest The only time you read the Miranda rights is when you want
to use the knowledge or evidence from the individual in court.
o “free to leave” ▯ US vs Mendenhall o Fleeing felon doctrine = police cant use deadly forced to stop
a felony suspect when they are escaping (could up until the