HDFS 225 Midterm: Quiz 2

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Human Develop & Family Studies
HDFS 225

Human Development: Quiz 2 Study Guide Chapter 9: • Puberty: attain sexual capability and ability to reproduce during adolescence o Hormones: increase, Androgens, Estrogens, changes relationships etc. o Physical Changes: ▪ Primary Sex Characteristics: ovaries, testicles ▪ Secondary Sex Characteristics: breasts, oily skin, body hair, lower voice ▪ Growth spurt: fat and muscle changes, circulation and respiration changes (2 yrs) ▪ First Menstrual Period 12.5 average age--menarche ▪ First ejaculation—spermarche o Individual Differences in timing in maturing, impacts self esteem etc, early girl matures are at higher risk for depression, low self esteem etc o Cultural Rites: rite of passage o Secular trend: seen by observing several generations, earlier attainment of adult height and other sexual characteristics. o Brain: gray matter decreases, white matter increases o Emotional areas develop before reasoning areas which effects adolescent behaviors • Adolescents bones are more likely to break due to heightened levels of activity • Cognitive Development th o Formal operational stage: Piaget’s 4 stage ▪ Hypothetical deductive reasoning: thinking abstractly ▪ Abstract reasoning: ability to think about possible situations, ideas, objects, that aren’t immediately present or obvious ▪ Egocentricism: one is center of the world ▪ Imaginary audience: Elkind’s term to describe the adolescent’s assumption that his or her preoccupation with personal appearance and behavior is shared by everyone else ▪ Personal fable: one is special and unique thus invulnerable o Development of formal operational thinking is common maturational milestone in adolescence • All systems o Positive youth development: resources to be developed, not problems to be managed 1. Competence: positive view in certain areas 2. Confidence: positive self worth and efficacy 3. Connection: positive bonds with people and institutions 4. Character: respect for societal norms, correct behaviors, sense of right 5. Caring/compassion: sympathy and empathy • Developmental assets: resources for healthy development (home, school, community) when aligned with strengths of youth, PYD may be enhanced • Risk Taking in Youth: not good at assessing actual risk, underdeveloped brain? Optimistic bias! o Teen pregnancy decrease since the 50s o Alcohol number 1 drug used by US adolescence o STD: most effective method to STD prevention is change in behavior ▪ Most prevalent: chlamydia, gonorrhea, genital herpes, HPV, syphilis, HIV/AIDS o Illicit drug use: if engaged in school, have friends, and good communication with parents they are less likely to use drugs • Poor diet/ inactivity can lead to 1. Type 1 diabetes 2. High cholesterol 3. hypertension (high blood pressure) 4. obesity in adulthood • Phase delay: melatonin secretion towards end of day and stays in body until morning (hard time to wake up in morning), difficult classes should be taken in afternoon Chapter 10: socio-emotional development in adolescence • Personality development (storm and stress period) o Identity vs role/identity confusion (5 stage Erikson) o Identity coherent conception of self in relation to society o Role to play in society? Where do you belong? Clique? ▪ Exploration & commitment lead to • Identity diffusion: static non-growth • Identity moratorium: searching for options in identity, hasn’t made a commitment • Identity foreclosure: no exploration and committed to someone else’s plans for their life (ex: forced in religion) • Identity achievement: commitment to something after crisis o Gender, ethnic identity? ▪ 1-21% of people identify as homosexual in US o HPV: leading cause of cervical cancer in women o Chlamydia and gonorrhea are the most common STIs o Authoritative parenting: provides stable context o Authoritarian parenting: inconsistent and punitive, problem w/ behavior o Romantic interactions 1. Initiation: notice and become comfortable with opp. sex 2. Status: concerned w/ dating the right people 3. Affection: meaningful connection 4. Bonding: commitment, occurs after couple has remained together for a long period of time Chapter 11: Physical and Cognitive Development in Emerging and Young Adulthood • Transition to adulthood (independent) o Different definitions in different cultures o Reflective thinking o Changed a lot in last 50 years: career entry, motherhood timing etc. o Cohabitating: living together with partner, but not married o Emerging adulthood= developmental stage between adolescence and adulthood during which individuals are searching for a sense of identity and maturity o delay a result of economy? ▪ Identity exploration ▪ Instability- work, education, love etc ▪ Self focused ▪ Feeling in between- adolescence? Adulthood?
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