• Download lecture powerpoint slides
• 50 MCQ – read question completely and carefully and all of answers
• Firm idea of sequencing of when things happened, historically in terms of
broadcasting, early days of radio, 4 stages of cable networking/programming, and
• At least half of the exam comes from the lecture (some overlap but not a lot)
• Sinclair is odd man out in terms of station ownership
• No questions over who formed first network
• 4 stages of cable
o 1) CATV – CommunityAntenna Television
o 2) Satellites (has a footprint of about 1/3 of the USA can send signal down to
receiving dishes, HBO used first)
o 3) Growth of narrowcast channels (HGTV, etc.)
o 4) “Branding of cable networks” 2000 (1997 with South Park on Comedy
Central) Beginning of original programming on cable networks
• Characteristics of new media
• Independent TV Stations have become successful with the growth of FOX network,
the must carry rule (cable had to carry these small independent signals, now have
same quality signal as commercial VHF TV stations)
• What led to the Freeze of 1948?
o We didn’t have enough channels, so they stopped, created UHF bandwidth
for more channels (all of this came about in 1952, 6 report and order said
that they added the UHF bandwith)
• What happened after Newton Minow’s speech 1961?
o “TV is a vast wasteland”
o This changed programming because we got rid of a lot of old dramas &
westerns, and replaced by stupid sitcoms (less offensive, no killing)
• Network characteristics
o At the same time, in terms of defining characteristic, programs provided to
the stations are given to the stations to air when the network says they will air
(at the same time) that way they can promote the program nationally
• Electromagnetic Spectrum
o Lower part of spectrum for broadcast signals, higher end of spectrum is light
in general, and then gamma rays
• AM v FM
o AM has shorter transmission and can travel farther, FM has better sound
Study Guide for Exam #2
Communication2100: Media Communication and Society
Questions from the Text
1 Chapter 6: Radio
1. What led to the RadioAct of 1912?
a. 1912 – Titanic sank, radio act of 1912 (we need new regulations)
2. What are the origins of RCA?
a. 1916- To create the first wireless telegraphy industry in the united states, Radio
Corporation of America, they did not want to broadcast, not their job, pool
resources, to run RCA – WWI, Marconi must be forced out of industry. Took
over British Marconi, formedAmerican Marconi, then RCA
b. 1916 – by the convergence of GE, Westinghouse, andAT&T because they were
involved in early days of radio, which was not broadcasting, they were involved
in wireless communication
c. They formed a company called Radio Corporation of America in 1926 (RCA)
3. What is the importance of KDKA in Pittsburgh?
a. It was the very first radio broadcast, and after that, radio experienced a golden
4. What is the importance of the “radio music box” as Sarnoff envisioned it?
a. Wavelengths could be changed with a switch or a button
5. How wasAT&T’s vision of radio different from Sarnoff’s?
a. AT&T’s idea was that we are a telephone of the air
b. You pay when you use the service, so if you want to send a message out to
anyone, you can do that, and you can buy the time; saw themselves as a common
c. Sarnoff and RCA saw themselves as providing the programming and notAT&T.
AT&T said you come with the program and we provide the lines
2 d. Wasn’t until later that concept of advertising got started
6. How did the BBC’s reaction toAmerican broadcasting influence their structure of radio?
a. Didn’t like emphasis on localness, their network is set up to meet the needs of the
country not the local market
b. Not enough focus on culture, education, advertsing, they foundAmerican
entertainment a little to crass
7. Which was the first broadcast network.
8. When was NBC formed? Who was responsible for this?
a. In 1926 by RCA
9. How did radio formats change after the decline of radio networks?
a. They become more localized, they became totally music and/or info related, Top
10 (40?) Radio came about because of TV, formatted radio with hot clocks
became big after TV came around, they became more localized
10. How does FM differ from AM?
a. FM has a high-fidelity sound (HiFi) and a short range as opposed toAM th