Review Exam 2
Chap 5: You are responsible for all material from 181-211.
Focus on bold-faced terms
Topics Covered Include
What is consciousness: definitions; variations; brain activity; influence of unconscious
▪ Consciousness is one's subjective experience of the world
resulting from brain activity
▪ Variations include automatic takes which is just like routine
stuff you don't have to think much about; controlled processing is things
that you have to focus more attention on; extreme states like comas and
persistent vegetative state means can't move etc.
▪ Brain activity can still be detected in a vegetative state; can be
determined by fMRI scans and doctor's can tell what you see by your brain
activity; global workspace model says that consciousness arises from what
brain circuits are active
▪ Unconscious processing influences behavior: subliminal
perception: processing of info by sensory systems without conscious
awareness; sometimes processing something without thinking too hard on it
can result in better decisions.
What is Sleep; Definitions; Stages of sleep; Sleep as Adaptive Behavior; Sleep
deprivation; Functions of
Dreams; Sleep Disorders
Sleep is altered state of consciousness
Stages of sleep: Alert wakefulness is beta waves; Just before sleep in
alpha waves; Stage 1 is theta waves; Stage 2 is sleep spindle and kcomplex; Stage
3/4 is delta waves; REM is beta waves. 90 minute cycle.
Sleep as an adaptive behavior: Restoration: sleep allows the brain and
body to rest and repair itself. If deprivation occurs micro sleeps can happen and
mood can change cognitive performance. Circadian Rhythm: Proposes that
animals sleep at night when there is danger and they don't move so they can't get
hurt. Facilitation of learning: neurons form connections when we sleep which is
the basis of learning; students sleep more during exam periods.
▪ Functions of dreams: Dreams are products of altered state of
reality that images and fantasies are confused with reality. REM dreams are more
likely to be bizarre; activation of amygdala and emotional parts of brain, and
visual part of brain, deactivation of prefrontal cortex. Freud believes dreams are
made of hidden content that represents unconscious conflicts; manifest content:
the plot of a dream; latent content: what a dream symbolizes, usually sexual; no
scientific evidence. Evolved threat rehearsal theory: why dream about threatening
events? Perhaps to come up with a way to cope with situations. Activation synthesis: dreams are brain's way to make sense of random brain activity that
occurs during sleep by synthesizing the activity with stored memories.
▪ Sleep disorders: Insomnia is difficulty getting to sleep and staying
asleep; poor quality. Sleep apnea is breathing stopping hundreds of times during
night and causes nonrestful sleep and excessive day time sleepiness.
Somnambulism is sleep walking; strong childhood tendencies and family history,
nocturnal enuresis, night terrors; arousal from early sleep; brain waves delta;
triggered by sleep deprivation, caffeine, alcohol, stress. Narcolepsy is excessive
daytime sleeps; cataplexy is sudden loss of muscle tone; triggered by emotion;
rapid REM onset. REM behavior disorder is acting out dreams; damage to an area
which normally inhibits muscles; lack of atonia.
What is altered Consciousness: Hypnosis; meditation; Flow
Altered conscious is hypnosis, meditation, immersion in an action.
Hypnosis is social interaction during which a person, responding to suggestions,
experiences changes in memory, perception, and or voluntary action. Meditation is
a mental procedure that focuses attention on an external object or sense of
awareness; meditator reaches state of tranquility; concentrative meditation focuses
on one thing like breathing or manta; mindfulness meditation is letting thoughts
flow freely. Transcendental is focusing on something for 20 mins. Zen, yoga. Flow
is performing a task that may lead to no reward but it's just so enjoyable you want
to do it; fails to notice other people around.
NOT COVERED: Drugs and Consciousness
Chap 7: You are responsible for all material from 268-313,
(except for p273-278; Attention). Focus on
Topics Covered Include
What is memory:
▪ Nervous system's capacity to acquire and retain usable skills and
knowledge. Processing of info. Result of brain activity.
How is memory maintained over time?
Information processing model: sensory input to encoding to storage to
retrieval. Sensory, short term or working, long term.
How is information organized in long term memory?
Long term memory is based on meanings, so the more you care about
something the more you'll remember it. Schemas (cognitive structures that help
perceive, organize, process, and use of info) provide organizational framework,
can lead to biased encoding. Info is stored in association networks, kind of like a
mind map. Retrieval cues provide access to long term storage.
What are the different longterm memory systems?
Explicit: system underlying conscious memories. Implicit: system
underlying unconscious memories. Declarative memory is cognitive info retrieved
from explicit memory; knowledge that can be declared. Episodic memory is
memory for one's past experiences. Semantic memory is knowledge about the world. Procedural memory is type of implicit memory that involves motor skills
and behavioral habits. Prospective memory is remembering to do something in the
When do people forget?
Transience: forgetting over time; proactive interference is when prior info
inhibits ability to remember new info; retroactive info is when new into inhibits
ability to remember old info. Blocking is when you can't remember something for
a little bit of time; brain fart; tip of the tongue. Absentmindedness is inattentive or
shallow encoding of event; forgetting if you locked door, turned straightener off.
Amnesia is losing vast majority of info.