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PSYCH 2210

Chapter One ⁃ Neuroscience: scientific study of the nervous system ⁃ how mental processes- thoughts, memories, perception- and behaviors are organized and implemented by brain activity ⁃ Biological psychology: also called behavioral neuroscience; study of the biological bases of psychological processes and behavior ⁃ Mind and Brain: an empirical example ⁃ Wilder Penfield: direct stimulation of cortex produces mental sensations of thinking and perceiving, rather than a sense of the brain being stimulated. ⁃ Secrets of the Mind ⁃ phantom limb, blindsight, neglect syndrome, capgras delusion, temporal lobe epilepsy ⁃ Historical Origins ⁃ Aristotle ⁃ explored questions about thought, learning, emotions ⁃ often wrong: thought heart was source of mental capacity, human males have more teeth than females ⁃ Galen ⁃ studied gladiators ⁃ linked brain injury to mental deficits ⁃ thought resides in ventricles ⁃ Hippocrates ⁃ empirical approach ⁃ brain as seat of thoughts and emotions ⁃ Leonardo Da Vinci ⁃ sketches of brain ⁃ Rene Descartes ⁃ dualism: non material soul, material body ⁃ proposed idea of body as a machine: spinal reflexes, neural pathways ⁃ Thomas Willis ⁃ father of clinical neuroscience ⁃ circle of willis: brain freeze ⁃ Franz Gall ⁃ phrenology: different parts of cortex represent different personality traits/ different functions ⁃ Localization of function ⁃ phrenology v modern cognitive neuroscience: anecdote v empirical methods ⁃ one to one correspondence v some degree of specialization of neurons in particular regions ⁃ Paul Broca ⁃ had patient with left frontal lesion: could not speak but had otherwise good cognitive abilities ⁃ suggested a specialized language area ⁃ Experimental methodology ⁃ somatic intervention: manipulating body may affect behavior ⁃ alteration of a structure or function of brain to see how thought/brain/behavior is altered (brain stimulation, drugs, hormones, cut connections) ⁃ IV is being altered, DV is behavior measured in response ⁃ control group isn't altered ⁃ within subjects experiment, CG is same set of subjects tested before any alteration ⁃ between subjects experiment EG is compared to separate control group ⁃ Fritsch and Hitzig: mapped motor cortex by electrical stimulation of a dog's cortex and recorded specific limb movement ⁃ Behavioral intervention ⁃ intervention in behavior to see how structure or function is altered ⁃ male in front of female, visual stimulus, training ⁃ mirror box: visual feedback changes brain ⁃ Correlation ⁃ measures how much a brain or body measure varies with a variable or stimulus ⁃ brain site or learning score ⁃ negative correlation: one measure goes up, the other goes down ⁃ positive correlation: both go up or both go down ⁃ correlation does not equal causation ⁃ Characteristics of neuroscience ⁃ Reductionism breaks down into smaller parts in order to understand it ⁃ Levels of analysis are the scope of experimental approaches range from social to molecular level ⁃ social neuroscience: uses tools of neuroscience to discover the biological bases of social behavior and the effects of social circumstances on brain activity ⁃ Neuroplasticity: physical change in the brain in response to learning or experience ⁃ Brain parts ⁃ Gray matter: neuronal cell bodies on outside/surface ⁃ White matter: axons myelin on interior, connections ⁃ Corpus callosum: bundle of fibers connecting 2 hemispheres ⁃ agenesis of CC: born without one ⁃ Ventricles: contain cerebrospinal fluid and provide protective cushion, carry certain substances (waste products, hormones) ⁃ Sections ⁃ Coronal: cross sect (across) ⁃ Saggittal: longitudinal (length) ⁃ Axial: horizontal (middle, top from bottom) ⁃ Dorsal/Superior: top view ⁃ Posterior/Caudal: back view ⁃ Ventral/Inferior: bottom view ⁃ Anterior/Rostral: front view ⁃ Cerebral cortex ⁃ 2 hemispheres ⁃ Lateral surface made up of 4 lobes ⁃ Each section has a characteristic set of gyri and sulci ⁃ Lateral sulcus is really deep, divides top from bottom ⁃ Central sulcus divides back from front ⁃ gyrus: a ridged or raised portion of a convoluted brain surface ⁃ sulcus: a crevice or valley of a convoluted brain surface ⁃ Post central gyrus: the strip of parietal cortex, just behind the central sulcus, that receives somatosensory information from the entire body ⁃ Precentral gyrus: the strip of frontal cortex, just in front of the central sulcus, that is crucial for motor control ⁃ Lateral/Sylvian fissure: a deep fissure that demarcates the temporal lobe ⁃ Superior temporal gyrus: situated above the ear, bound by the lateral sulcus, superior temporal sulcus, and contains Brodmann and Wernicke's Areas ⁃ Occipital gyrus: either of the gyri on the occipital lobe ⁃ Brodmann's Areas: cytoarchitecture, linked to specific functions ⁃ Broca's Area: left frontal lobe, language production ⁃ Pre-frontal: executive function, planning ⁃ Orbito frontal: emotion ⁃ Dorsolateral: inhibition of behavior ⁃ Parietal lobe ⁃ Primary somatosensory cortex: post central gyrus; phantom limb ⁃ body image ⁃ spatial processing ⁃ where pathway ⁃ disorders: phantom limb: re-wiring in ss cortex; neglect syndrome: right hemisphere ⁃ Occipital lobe ⁃ primary visual cortex: conscious seeing ⁃ blindsight, alexia (can't read) ⁃ Temporal lobe ⁃ Auditory cortex ⁃ superior temporal gyrus ⁃ conscious recognition of sound ⁃ facial recognition, shape, size, color, texture, pictorial detail ⁃ Wernicke's area: language recognition ⁃ agression ⁃ memory ⁃ what pathway: object/face recognition ⁃ capgras & epilepsy ⁃ Frontal lobe ⁃ movement ⁃ decision making ⁃ problem solving ⁃ planning ⁃ motor functions ⁃ judgement ⁃ impulse control ⁃ Subcortical structures ⁃ Limbic system: a loosely defined, wide spread group of brain nuclei that innervate each other to form a network ⁃ Cingulate gyrus: a strip of cortex found in the frontal and parietal midline that is part of the limbic system and is implicated in many cognitive functions ⁃ Hippocampus: a medial temporal lobe structure that is important for learning and memory ⁃ Amygdala: Nuclei in the medial anterior part of the temporal lobe; emotion regulation ⁃ Olfactory bulb: anterior projection of the brain that terminates in the upper nasal passages and through small openings in the skull provides receptors for smell ⁃ - Basal ganglia: voluntary motor control, procedural learning related to habits, eye movements, cognitive and emotional functions. ⁃ Huntington's: damage to striatum ⁃ Parkinson's: degeneration of dopamine producing cells in the substantial nigra ⁃ OCD: serotonergic hypofunction ⁃ Diencephalon: gives rise to posterior forebrain structures. Neural tube. ⁃ Thalamus relays sensory and motor cortex to cerebral cortex, consciousness, sleep, alertness ⁃ Hypothalamus: nervous system, endocrine system, body temp, hunger, sleep, parenting/attachment, arousal? ⁃ Midbrain ⁃ Superior colliculi: paired gray matter structures of the dorsal midbrain that process visual information ⁃ Inferior colliculi: paired gray matter structures of the dorsal midbrain that process auditory information ⁃ Substantia Nigra: a brainstem structure that innervates the basal ganglia and is the source of all dopaminergic projections ⁃ Reticular formation: an extensive region of the brainstem that is involved in sleep and arousal ⁃ Hindbrain ⁃ Pons: the portion of the brainstem that connects the midbrain to the medulla; contains important motor control and sensory nuclei ⁃ Medulla: the posterior part of the hindbrain, continuous with spinal cord; controls respiration and heart rate and conveys all major motor and sensory fibers to and from body ⁃ Meninges: the three protective membranes- dura matter, pia matter, and arachnoid- that surround the brain and spinal cord ⁃ Neurons ⁃ Neuron Doctrine: nervous system is made up of discrete individual cells ⁃ 4 zones ⁃ Input: the part of a neuron that receives information from other neurons or from specialized sensory structures ⁃ Integration: part of the neuron that initiates nerve electrical activity ⁃ Conduction: a single extension, the axon, conducts the cells' output information, in the form of electrical impulses away from the cell body. ⁃ Output: specialized swellings at the ends of the avon, called the axon terminals, transmit the cell's signals across synapses to other cells. ⁃ Dendrites ⁃ Input zone ⁃ An extension of the cell body that receives information from other neurons ⁃ Soma or Cell body ⁃
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