VALUE PACK Lectures 1 and Two The Protestant Reformation and The Thirty Years War!

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HIS - History
HIS - History HIS 231
Eric Zuelow

The Protestant Reformation Tue.Jan 22 Agenda: *Pre-reformation challenge *Contextual Change *Luther *Spread-Calvin/Zwingli/England *Catholic Response Before the Reformation John Wycliffe (mid 1320‟s-1384) educated at university, professor at Balliol College,Oxford. Studies theology and starts to question Catholicism, esp. hierarchy. Shouldn‟t everyone be able to talk with God/Read bible? Translates the B into vernacular. Extreme wealth of church (fueled by plague donations) is also troubling. Begins preaching in 1370‟s 1377-called before Church Court, walks away with impunity 1381-fired from Oxford, continues to preach 1428- his body is dug up and mutilated by angry bishop, sweet little scene is later published in „Foxe‟s Book of Martyrs.‟ Lollards: his followers, originally a term for ne‟er-do-wells. Movement enjoys modest popularity til those in the lower class plot a revolution. Upper class is not so keen on this idea. 1401-Statute De Haeretico Combuendo: allows good Christians to burn Lollards @ stake. 1415-uprising squashed Jan Hus (c.1372-1415) Professor digs Wycliffe, preaches his material to Hussites. Burnt at stake, his followers carry on small series of wars. Couldn‟t advertise as well as the Catholics, so they didn‟t become very popular. Contextualizing Luther Luther shares idea w/ Wycliffe and Huss. Renaissance- Luther comes in @ end of rebirth and emergence of Civic Humanism- invented by Coluccio Salutati (1331- 1406). Family and public service most important. Desiderus Erasmus (1466-1536) “Prince of Humanist”, wrote „In Praise of Folly‟. Laid the egg that Luther hatched. Satires people, esp. Church Johaness Guttenberg (1398-1468) invents movable type printing press. This will aid the exposure of Luther‟s work. Martin Luther (1483-1521) b. 10 Nov. 1483 in Germany. Ambitious, wealthy father sends Luther to school. Gets Masters @ Erfurt. Then plague hits, Luther flees home. nd July 2 ,1505-Major thunderstorm, luther is caught in the torrent, falls off his horse and prays to St. Anne for salvation, promises if he lives he will become a monk. He makes it through and is true to his word. 1506- takes vows @ Erfurt monastery 1507-Ordained a priest, goes on Pilgrimage. Sees Rome, is disgusted with extravagance. Sent to profess at Wittenburg. “The just shall live by Faith alone.” Bible Johann Tetzel rolls into town on business of Pope Leo X (1475-1521) selling indulgences, pardon for sin. Luther is outraged, writes 95 THESES and nails it to the church door for all to see. Calls for church to reform itself, gets published and grows large following. Diet of Worms- Luther is called before the council by Charles V, HRE. Tried for heresy. Told to recant, replies “It is neither right nor safe to stand against conscious.” Freed and continues publishing. Did not want violence, but in 1524 war breaks out. HRE splits between protestant and catholic , Europe is no longer unified by Catholicism. Huldrych (Ulrich) Zwingli (1484-1531) Swiss reformer. Product of renaissance thought. Erasmus translates Bible, Zwingli reads it. 1518- preaches “People‟s preacher”, says purgatory/saints/monasticism are ridiculous. Luther & Z meet, little disagreement over the Eucharist. Transubstantion- imbibing literal body and blood of X, v. Consubstantion- figurative. (1/24/13- Lecture cont.) John Calvin French, one of the most famous of reformation. Studies Theology in Paris, intends to become priest, has doubts. Goes into law, in 1533 formally breaks with church. Flees france fearing persecution from King Francis I. Hooks up with Guillame Farel, gets kicked out of Geneva. Ivited back a few years later, indicating political instability in region. Together they build a protestant state theocracy. Consistory: ministers and layman watching the citizens for immorality. Central characteristic of mankind-depravity. Goal of authority is to root this out. Total depravity-utterly sinful, incapable of redemption Unconditional election- predestined at birth for heaven or hell. Limited Atonement- Christ died only for the elect. Irresistable Grace-the elect have a certain grace about them bestowed by God‟s glory. Persistance of Grace-said grace can not be lost The Elect do NOT: drink,dance,murder, swear, engage in sex outside of marriage, skip church The English Reformation Henry VIII (1491-1547) liked to sing, compose, hunt, dance. His bro dies, he marries sis in law Catherine of Aragon (1483-1536). She‟s a killjoy who miscarries often. Bears one child full term, Mary Tudor. Then Henry falls for the young,beautiful Anne Boleyn (1501-1536). At first she resists his advances, but the king is sauve and eventually she‟s pregnant. Henry must annul marriage to Cat. Pope says no. Henry pushes parliament to declare Pr
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