The Protestant Reformation
Before the Reformation
John Wycliffe (mid 1320‟s-1384) educated at university, professor at Balliol
College,Oxford. Studies theology and starts to question Catholicism, esp. hierarchy. Shouldn‟t
everyone be able to talk with God/Read bible? Translates the B into vernacular. Extreme wealth
of church (fueled by plague donations) is also troubling. Begins preaching in 1370‟s
1377-called before Church Court, walks away with impunity
1381-fired from Oxford, continues to preach
1428- his body is dug up and mutilated by angry bishop, sweet little scene is later
published in „Foxe‟s Book of Martyrs.‟
Lollards: his followers, originally a term for ne‟er-do-wells. Movement enjoys modest
popularity til those in the lower class plot a revolution. Upper class is not so keen on this idea.
1401-Statute De Haeretico Combuendo: allows good Christians to burn Lollards @ stake.
Jan Hus (c.1372-1415) Professor digs Wycliffe, preaches his material to Hussites. Burnt at stake,
his followers carry on small series of wars. Couldn‟t advertise as well as the Catholics, so they
didn‟t become very popular.
Luther shares idea w/ Wycliffe and Huss.
Renaissance- Luther comes in @ end of rebirth and emergence of Civic Humanism-
invented by Coluccio Salutati (1331- 1406). Family and public service most important. Desiderus Erasmus (1466-1536) “Prince of Humanist”, wrote „In Praise of Folly‟. Laid
the egg that Luther hatched. Satires people, esp. Church
Johaness Guttenberg (1398-1468) invents movable type printing press. This will aid the
exposure of Luther‟s work.
Martin Luther (1483-1521)
b. 10 Nov. 1483 in Germany. Ambitious, wealthy father sends Luther to school. Gets
Masters @ Erfurt. Then plague hits, Luther flees home.
July 2 ,1505-Major thunderstorm, luther is caught in the torrent, falls off his horse and
prays to St. Anne for salvation, promises if he lives he will become a monk. He makes it through
and is true to his word.
1506- takes vows @ Erfurt monastery
1507-Ordained a priest, goes on Pilgrimage. Sees Rome, is disgusted with extravagance.
Sent to profess at Wittenburg. “The just shall live by Faith alone.” Bible
Johann Tetzel rolls into town on business of Pope Leo X (1475-1521) selling
indulgences, pardon for sin. Luther is outraged, writes 95 THESES and nails it to the church
door for all to see. Calls for church to reform itself, gets published and grows large following.
Diet of Worms- Luther is called before the council by Charles V, HRE. Tried for heresy.
Told to recant, replies “It is neither right nor safe to stand against conscious.” Freed and
continues publishing. Did not want violence, but in 1524 war breaks out. HRE splits between
protestant and catholic , Europe is no longer unified by Catholicism.
Huldrych (Ulrich) Zwingli (1484-1531)
Swiss reformer. Product of renaissance thought. Erasmus translates Bible, Zwingli reads it.
1518- preaches “People‟s preacher”, says purgatory/saints/monasticism are ridiculous. Luther &
Z meet, little disagreement over the Eucharist. Transubstantion- imbibing literal body and blood
of X, v. Consubstantion- figurative.
(1/24/13- Lecture cont.)
French, one of the most famous of reformation. Studies Theology in Paris, intends to become
priest, has doubts. Goes into law, in 1533 formally breaks with church. Flees france fearing
persecution from King Francis I. Hooks up with Guillame Farel, gets kicked out of Geneva. Ivited back a few years later,
indicating political instability in region. Together they build a protestant state theocracy.
Consistory: ministers and layman watching the citizens for immorality.
Central characteristic of mankind-depravity. Goal of authority is to root this out.
Total depravity-utterly sinful, incapable of redemption
Unconditional election- predestined at birth for heaven or hell.
Limited Atonement- Christ died only for the elect.
Irresistable Grace-the elect have a certain grace about them bestowed by God‟s glory.
Persistance of Grace-said grace can not be lost
The Elect do NOT: drink,dance,murder, swear, engage in sex outside of marriage, skip church
The English Reformation
Henry VIII (1491-1547) liked to sing, compose, hunt, dance. His bro dies, he marries sis
in law Catherine of Aragon (1483-1536). She‟s a killjoy who miscarries often. Bears one child
full term, Mary Tudor. Then Henry falls for the young,beautiful Anne Boleyn (1501-1536). At
first she resists his advances, but the king is sauve and eventually she‟s pregnant. Henry must
annul marriage to Cat. Pope says no. Henry pushes parliament to declare Pr