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ANTH 1101

ANTH 1101 Peoples and Cultures Review Sheet for Exam 3 This is a PARTIAL list of the terms and materials that you are responsible for on the first exam. The purpose of this sheet is to help you organize the course material. You may be tested on material from class that is NOT on this sheet. READING: “The Price of Progress,” John Bodley - Critique of economic development-detrimental to smaller societies in terms of health, ecological change, quality of life, and relative deprivation. Social advantages-positive and universal, distributed unequally. FILM CLIP: The Simpsons, “Kiss, Kiss, Bang, Bangalore” - Outsources and cheap labor is established in India. Then these laborers learn about their human rights and unionize. Jobs disappear because they are being outsourced by they are replaced by service jobs. 3 aspects of empire (political/economic/cultural) - 1. Political: laws, rule, local areas representative of empires 2. Economic: taxation, setting up trade routes, new markets 3. Cultural: assimilation, conversion to Christianity the colonial era – British empire expands across world – colonized Africa for raw materials, need for markets, the 3 C’s Christianity and civilization – commerce Christianity, civilization. Missionaries wanted to civilize people and convert them to Christianity in colonized areas benefits and abuses of colonization – benefit: opportunity for education abuse: slavery - abuses: spread of diseases, enslavement, exploitation of local resources. Benefits: spread of modern technology and knowledge Barbados (history, colonialism, tourism) - - original inhabitants: Arawak and then Carib Indians - Portuguese discover island, early 1500s - claimed for England, 1625; settled over next few years English settlement of Barbados - climate ideal for sugar - sugar revolution landscape transformed - large amounts of poor white labor pours into Barbados Slavery and Sugar - sugar plantations demanded many workers - shit toAfrican slave labor, during late 1600s - Barbados and other islands shift to a majority black population – though Barbados has more whites than many - has better infrastructure than most other caribbean countries, became independent in 1961 but then became dependent on tourism industry The Triangular Trade - Triangular trade, or triangle trade, is a historical term indicating trade among three ports or regions. The best- known triangular trading system is the transatlantic slave trade, that operated from the late 16th to early 19th centuries, carrying slaves, cash crops, and manufactured goods between West Africa, Caribbean or American colonies and the European colonial powers, with the northern colonies of British North America, especially New England, sometimes taking over the role of Europe. Caribbean islands sends raw materials to Europe who send manufactured goods to Africa who sends enslavedAfricans to work in the Caribbean islands Colonialism - Colonialism is the establishment, exploitation, maintenance, acquisition, and expansion of colonies in one territory by people from another territory. It is a set of unequal relationships between the colonial power and the colony and often between the colonists and the indigenous population. postcolonialism – the postcolonial view of the contemporary world is that the colonial period if over, and we live in a new era with new dynamics of culture and power neocolonialism – the neocolonial view of the contemporary world is that the world continues to be characterized by the same dynamics of culture and power as in the colonial period. The only difference is that today, there are few examples of outright political control of colonies; rather, more subtle forms of economic, political, and cultural domination culture industrialism - industrial revolution - use of non human and non animal energy to do work - labor (a commodity) replaces work (an activity)- you make money with your labor to buy the products of someone else’s labor - centralization of the workplace - market economy (supply and demand capitalism) - very few people involved in producing food - few people produce what they use - social impacts of industrialism - increased energy usage - increased consumption of (a) manufactured goods (B) not produced locally - institutionalized inequality - ecocide social impacts of industrialism increased energy usage - human power is replaced by nonrenewable fossil fuels for manufacture of everything from food to clothing and shelter - some people use much more energy than others -ex. Industrialists vs hunter-gatherers - ex. North America versus Africa industrialism and environmental damage – huge amounts of pollution as well as clearing of lands and trees to build factories. Increase energy usage of nonrenewable fossil fuels, environmentally expensive shipping because of non-local foods culture of consumption - Aculture whose “major economic, social and ideological systems are geared to nonsustainable level of resource consumption and to continual, even-higher elevation of those levels on a per capita basis” (Bodley) Aculture of consumption does not necessarily create more hours of leisure the cultural and ecological impacts of over-consumption - over consumption: convincing people that why they have isn't good enough, making things more breakable and disposable to keep people buying, impacts: over use of finite resources, creating a standard that people can't live to, feeling that emotional needs will be satiated by buying more The 3 conditions leading to globalization & hunger (with examples) - one consequence of industrialism is the creation of vastly different economies. For many former colonies and minority groups, colonialism and globalization has made indigenous people are vulnerable to extreme poverty and hunger in the following ways: 1. people lose their land, often through coercion (ex. Slavery, war). Then they must do wage labor and often are paid less than they need to buy enough food 2. commercialization of local food production (cash-crops) substituted for food crops): erodes reciprocities and sustainable practices 3. a state emerges and takes peoples products or labor large scale hunger can occur - when international terms of trade are unequal, leading more wealth to be extracted from some countries, and/or - where debt to foreign banks consumes the majority of export earnings (which could otherwise be used to import food), and so state pressures rural areas to provide more export earnings by planting more cash than food crops desert and beverage economies - Economies that only produce dessert and beverage commodities for export, the locals can't survive off their local products because they're only dessert and beverage items settler colonies – in settler colonies, the colonial power sought to establish a new homeland for some of its members. Asignificant number of members of the colonizing society would move into the colony, displacing native people and using them for labor extractive colonies – in extractive colonies, the primary intent of colonizing power was to extract resources (mineral wealth or agricultural products) from the colonized territory. There were usually relatively few members of the colonizing society present in the colony, in these situations colonial ideology: the “White Man’s Burden” - the task that white colonizers believed they had to impose their civilization on the black inhabitants of their colonies. globalization (labor, hunger, etc.) – the word globalization generally refers to a greater interconnectedness of the world, through new information, communication, and travel technologies, but beyond that, it has many different meanings. Sometimes, people use it to talk about an exciting era in which people from all the countries of the world are connected with one another. Sometimes, people use it to talk about a frightening era in which the rich and powerful countries, organizations, and companies of the world use new means to control and oppress the poorer countries and peoples of the world FILM: Life & Debt - Jamaica has been in debt to the IMF which is forcing farmers to pay high interest rates, and do not allow for their food to be sold locally. Also, the free trade zone was established, which is an area that is technically not owned by Jamaica meaning corporations outsource labor jobs for cheap labor without taxes from Jamaica. READING: “Barbados,”Anthony Trollope – labor in Barbados Behind the Smile (themes and examples) – tourism is a huge reason these caribbean countries are successful – all inclusive resorts hurt their economy because the owned businesses lose out on making money - tourists leave a lot of trash and garbage – leads to pollution of coral reefs – tourists sometimes hustles by the barbadians – educational and social gaps between inhabitants and tourists – racism on island of barbados – some restaurants/hotels wont serve/accommodate guests based on color – people are trained to be hotel workers at community colleges in barbados – men who live on the island try to have sex with the women tourists - oral history interviews – airport the gateway for most travelers – real life anecdotes of person getting luggage for tourists at airport Bajan, Redcap, Beach boy – Bajan term for a Barbadian Redcap railroad porter Beach Boy people that work on the beach tourism (history of; effects of; types of; relation to global stratification) – - history of Wealthy people have always traveled around the world to experience new cultures, learn new languages and eat different cuisines. - effects of Tourist destinations have to meet the needs and desires of the tourists which result in disruptive cultural change and environmental damage. These destinations also begin to depend on tourism as a major source of economy. - relation to global stratification There is an imbalance in the way that tourism functions. The Caribbean islands don't benefit because the resources don't flow in as expected. - types of tourism??? FILM CLIP: The Office, “Back from Vacation” - Michael Scott returns from a Sandals resort in Jamaica with a severe misunderstanding of the economic situation there. international debt development projects (and NGOs) ­ development projects can provide services and resources to citizens of poor  countries – but rarely under local leadership  World Trade Organization (WTO) ­ The World Trade Organization (WTO) is an organization that intends to supervise and liberalize  international trade. The organization officially commenced on 1 January 1995 under the Marrakech Agreement, replacing the  General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), which commenced in 1948. The organization deals with regulation of trade  between participating countries; it provides a framework for negotiating and formalizing trade agreements, and a dispute  resolution process aimed at enforcing participant's adherence to WTO agreements, which are signed by representatives of member  governments and ratified by their parliaments. International Monetary Fund (IMF) ­ The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is an international organization that was initiated in  1944 at the Bretton Woods Conference and formally created in 1945 by 29 member countries. The IMF's stated goal was to assist  in the reconstruction of the world's international payment system post–World War II. Countries contribute money to a pool  through a quota system from which countries with payment imbalances can borrow funds temporarily. Through this activity and  others such as surveillance of its members' economies and the demand for self­correcting policies, the IMF works to improve the  economies of its member countries.[ World Bank­ The World Bank is a United Nations international financial institution that provides loans[3] to developing countries for  capital programs. The World Bank is a component of the World Bank Group, and a member of the United Nations Development  Group. The World Bank's official goal is the reduction of poverty. According to its Articles of Agreement, all its decisions must be  guided by a commitment to the promotion of foreign investment and international trade and to the facilitation of capital investment.  READING: “Advertising and Global Culture,” Janus ­ Same advertising and products­depressed self­value, feel less developed.  Transnational advertising reason for spread of transnational culture and breakdown of traditional cultures. Women fear aging or  dark skin. – poor people see certain advertisements and see them as unattainable lifestyles and that only the rich have access to  them READING: “Cell Phones, Sharing, and Social Status in an African Society,” Daniel Jordan Smith – Nigerians and their cell phone use  – use SMS, ‘flashing,’ – cost about 15 cents per text and has to be shorter than 160 characters – type of phone you have defines  your status  FILM CLIP: Trobriand Cricket ­ The British brought cricket to the Trobriand. They have added various elements to it to make it their  own. global effects of advertising ­ Transnational 
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