COMM 4535 Study Guide - Spring 2019, Comprehensive Final Exam Notes - Testosterone, Silence, Signify

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COMM 4535
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Nonverbal Social Interaction
01/11/2018
Communication, Nonverbal Behavior, and Emotion
Defining Communication
When the behavior of one individual (sender) influences the behavior of another
individual (receiver)
Behavior is communicative to the extent that it reduces uncertainty in the
behavior of another
Communication, then, does not have to occur through a socially-shared symbol
system
Some sending and receiving mechanisms are adaptive, or biologically-
based
Symbolic and Spontaneous Communication
Spontaneous
Biologically-shared signal system
Non-voluntary
Elements of the messages are signs
Not arbitrary (would not be present unless you are truly feeling the
feeling)
Non-propositional
Never false
Symbolic
Socially-shared symbol system (language)
Voluntary
Elements of the messages are symbols
Arbitrary
Propositional
Four Types:
Emblems: signals that are equivalents to words (peace)
Illustrators: show the other person what is being said verbally
Regulators: help to manage the flow of the conversation (eye
contact)
Adapters: things that seem involuntary but are voluntary
Verbal vs. Nonverbal Messages
Verbal and nonverbal messages can be sent an understood as both:
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Voluntary, Intentional/deliberate, propositional, symbolic
Involuntary, Automatic/Intuitive, Non-propositional, Spontaneous
1/17/2018
Sending and Receiving Nonverbal Messages
Nonverbal displays have adaptive value because they reveal something about
the internal state of the individual. This suggests:
The inner state of the individual must be encoded into an expressive
display
The receiver must be able to receive the expressive display
The receiver must be able to decode the display and respond
appropriately
Sending:
Successfully communicating one’s internal state through visible, overt
behaviors that are accessible to others leads those behaviors- or displays-
to become ritualized.
Receiving:
Individuals who respond appropriately to the displays also tend to be
favored.
These receiving mechanisms eventually become preattuned to pick up on
these displays.
Pseudo-Spontaneous Communication
Occurs when a sender intentionally manipulates nonverbal displays that are
associated with naturally occurring spontaneous communications
Propositional
Display Rules
May be interpreted by the receiver as valid spontaneous displays
Successful manipulation results in influencing the receiver in the way the sender
intended
The ability to accurately interpret the real, spontaneous displays is an important
element of a personal relationship
Summary
There are 2 streams of comm: symbolic and spontaneous
Spontaneous comm: express internal motivational and emotional states through
nonverbal behaviors
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