[PSYC 1101] - Midterm Exam Guide - Ultimate 13 pages long Study Guide!

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PSYC 1101
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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Karina Da Rosa
1. Psychology
a. Psychology
i. The Study of Behavior and Mental Processes
1. Promote the nature vs nurture discussion
b. Scientific Psychology
i. Basic Research
1. Introduce testable questions in order to draw conclusions
ii. Data collection and analysis
1. Testing a hypothesis to conclude
c. Applied Psychology
i. Clinical practice
1. Taking what we learn in scientific psychology and applying it to
the human condition
ii. Types of Applied Psychology
1. Industry
a. Getting the most amount of work done for the smallest
amount of pay
2. Law
a. Understanding and applying what makes someone
responsible and not responsible
3. Education
a. Aptitude examinations in turn with pharmacology
4. Child rearing // Development
a. Parenting style and its effects on child development
d. Psychology as a Science
i. Governed by dominant perspective and models
1. Defines a field of investigation
a.
ii. Asking questions in a systematic way
1. Following the rules of science
a. Hypothesis
i. Testable
b. Replicable
i. People can easily follow your model in order to
draw similar outcomes and conclusions
c. Behavior
i. Directly observable
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ii. Human ethology : the finite number of behaviors
the body can exhibit
d. Mental and Physiological Processes
i. Not observable
e. History of Psychology as a Science
i. Wilhelm Wundt : Structuralism
1. Founder of scientific psychology
2. First research lab : Germany
3. Elements of Consciousness
a. Sensation, perception and emotion
ii. Introspection to understand the nature of consciousness and immediate
experience
1. Produced structuralism
a. Behavioral outcomes in response to stimulus
iii. Gestalt Psychology : Structuralism
1. Structuralism too much introspection
a. Breaking down a system only to understand its smaller
parts feeds into reductionism
2. Consciousness not to be explained by looking at the parts
a. Prompts the theory of holism
i. The whole is greater than the sum of its parts
iv. William James : Functionalism
1. Background
a. Novelist
b. Influenced by Darwin
c. Disagreed with Wundt
2. Interested in the adaptive significance of consciousness
a. Follows the model of functionalism
b. Structuralism was asking “what” consciousness is rather
than “how” it became to be what it is (functionalism)
v. John B. Watson : Behaviorism
1. Believed that structuralism and functionalism were too subjective
2. Prompted the concept of systematic shift
a. Only study observable behavior
b. If you want to predict human behavior you must look at
behavior and how it exists and how you can change it
3. Governed by external events
4. Develop and sustain behavior by reinforcement
a. Schedules of reinforcement determine efficiency
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