[BIOL 3320] - Midterm Exam Guide - Ultimate 13 pages long Study Guide!

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7 Feb 2017
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NSU
BIOL 3320
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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Chapter 4 Notes
4 types
Epithelial Tissue
outside the skin
hollow organ, with a cavity inside
provides physical, biological and chemical protection
Sensation- a lot of nerve endings
allows different chemical to enter different parts of the body
Important for secretion
Muscle Tissue
important for contractions and movement
located in the gastro intestinal, respiratory, urinary, genital, cardiovascular system
walls of hollow organs controlled subconsciously
skeletal muscle heart controlled by us.
Neural Tissue
carries electrical signals
Connective Tissue
transport fluid
nutrients, oxygens, waste
general framework of the body
made of bone and cartilage
protects vital organ
ex:lung, heart kidney, lungs
in charge of storing energy
Epithelial Tissue:
types
Epithelia -absorption
Glands - secretion
characteristics
controls polarity
attachment to basement or basal membrane
the basement membrane separate it from the connective tissue
cellularity
packed tight to have a protected barrier
vascularity
no blood vessels
regeneration
because they are always exposed to different material
3 different connections
Intercellular Connections
large areas of OPPOSING plasma membrane
CAMs
Intercellular cement
Hyaluronan
different cell junctions:
Tight junctions:
does not allow movement of fluid from one area to another
prevent movement
ex: in kidneys and brain
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Gap junction
ALLOWS small fat soluble molecules and electro lights from one
area to another
Desmosomes
Spot- between 2 epithelia cells
when you have cells attached
Hemidesmosomes
the more you have the more the cells will stick together
Attachment to the Basement Membrane
Clear Layer
secretion is coming from epithelial tissue
Dense Layer
secretion is coming from connective tissue
Why important? (can be an extra credit question)
Carcinoma in-situ
if damage the cancer can still move to the connective tissue (invasive cancer)
will spread by the blood vessels to the body
Epithelial Maintenance and Repair
are replaced by the division of stem cells
Tip: make an outline of the lecture
Classification of Epithelia: (on test write whole classification)
Base on shape (classify on the top layer)
Squamous- flat, you look at the top = superficial layer
Cuboidal
Columnar
Based on layer
Simple
Stratified - multiple layer
Squamous Epithelia
Simple Squamous
for absorption and diffusion
Mesothelium
covers the body cavities
Endothelium
located in the vascular cavities
Stratified Squamous
protects against attacks
found in the Keratinized (a protein), if present - in the skin
if not Keratinized - in the vagina
*Emphysema- A avail ruptures because of smoking, the lungs will be damaged
Cuboidal Epithelia (1 layer)
Simple
secretion and absorption
has lumen and 1 layer
Stratified
sweat ducts and mammary ducts
not as common
more than one layer
*Renal Tubular Necrosis - if people taking a lot of toxins, the epithelia tissue die and the lumens are blocked
Transitional Epithelia
located in the Urinary Track ,NOT Kidney
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