ENVS 4210- Final Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam ( 112 pages long!)

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5 Dec 2017
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NSU
ENVS 4210
FINAL EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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SET 1
epidemiology
the study of distribution and determinants of health related states or events in human population
and the application of this study to the prevention and control of health problems.
entails: study, application, and prevention
descriptive epidemiology
characterizing of the distribution of health related states and events.
distribution - identifying frequency and pattern of health related states within a population.
frequency - the number of affected in susceptible population
pattern - is the specifics of who experiences illness, points of time, and locations.
analytic epidemiology
finding and quantifying associations, testing hypothesis, and identifying causes of health related
states or events.
What an epidemiologist concerned with?
identifying determinants - specific events, conditions, or characteristics preceding disease.
identifying causal relationships - totality of evidence, valid statistics, consistency.
sufficient exposure
exposure to pathogen is present before disease, disease is always an outcome.
necessary exposure
exposure is present before disease, but disease does not always occur.
range of function
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- identify risk factors for disease, injury, and death
- describing natural history of disease
- identifying individuals and populations at greater risk
- monitoring disease and other health-related events over time.
- evaluating efficacy and effectiveness of prevention and treatment programs
- providing information for health planning and health programs
- assisting in carrying out public health programs
- being a resource person
- communicating public health information
case definition
as standard set of criteria that ensure cases are consistently diagnosed and used to track diseases.
efficacy
the ability to produce desired effect among participants
effectiveness
ability of program to produce benefits among those offered the program
epidemic
occurrence of cases of an illness in excess of normal expectancy in a population, community,
region.
outbreak
an epidemic which is confined to a localized area.
endemic
ongoing, usual, or constant presence of a disease in a population, patterned seasonal infections
from year to year are also endemic.
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