HIST 104H Study Guide - Comprehensive Midterm Guide: Bartolomé De Las Casas, Indentured Servant, Anglo-America

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CH 1 The New World
The Spanish Empire
Colonists and Indians in Spanish America
-Spanish America evolved into a hybrid culture--Part Indian, Part Spanish, and in places part
Mestizos are persons of mixed Indian and Spanish origin.
Justifications for Conquest
-To justify their claims to land that belonged to someone else, the Spanish relied on cultural
superiority, missionary zeal, and violence.
-A missionary element existed from the church's long holy war against Islam, and was renewed
with the Protestant Reformation in the Sixteenth Century
-A primary aim of the Spaniards was to convert Indians to the "True Faith"
Piety and Profit
-The souls to be saved could also be a labor force in the gold and silver mines
-Bartolome de las Casas wrote about the injustices of Spanish rule toward the Indians. (Voices of
-He believed that "the entire human race is one," but favored African Slavery.
Reforming the Empire
-Las Casa's writings encouraged the 1543 New Laws, which forbade the enslavement of Indians.
-The Black Legend was an image, put forth in part by Las Casas, that Spain was a uniquely brutal
and exploitive colonizer.
The French and Dutch Empires
French Colonization
-Samuel de Champlain founded Quebec in 1608, and others explored and claimed the entire
Mississippi Valley for France.
-Relatively few French colonists arrived in New France. The white population in 1700 was only
New France and the Indians
-With few settlers, friendly relations with the Indians were essential for France.
-The French prided themselves on adopting a more humane policy toward the Indians than Spain,
yet their contact still brought disease and their fur trading depleted the native animal population.
-The metis were children of Indian women and French men.
The Dutch Empire
-Henry Hudson sailed into New York Harbor and claimed the area for the Netherlands (1609).
-The Dutch West India Company settled colonists on Manhattan Island (1626).
-The Netherlands dominated international commerce in the early seventeenth century.
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