All lecture notes for BI 211H Final

20 Pages
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Department
Biology
Course Code
BI 211H
Professor
Timothy Pusack

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Description
Biodiversity  Named & described 1.8 mill  Estimated 10-200 million  Greatest biodiversity concentrations in tropical rainforests. The 3 levels of biodiversity 1. Genetic diversity  The variation of genes w/in a singular population & among multiple populations 2. Species diversity  Variety of species w/in an ecosystem 3. Ecosystem diversity  Variety of ecosystems w/in the biosphere Biodiversity hotspots  Relatively small area with numerous endemic (unique to the area) species  Large numbers of species are endangered or threatened  Both Endemic & regular species biodiversity in these areas.  25 hotspots globally  1.5% all land area  44% vascular plant species w/in this  35% terrestrial invertebrates w/in this Conservation Biology  Conserve biological diversity at all levels  Interdisciplinary: bio ecology genetics, resource management, restoration ecology, sociology, economics th  6 mass extinction event?  Globally 12% birds, 20%mammals, 32% amphibians threatened w/ extinction Benefits of Biodiversity: 1. Biophilia  Innate connection, appreciation and love for the natural world. 2. Ecosystem services  All the processes through which the natural ecosystems & their species sustain life  Purification of air & water  Detoxification and decomposition of wastes  Cycling of nutrients  Moderation of extreme weather events. 3. Material Goods  Building supplies  Fibers  Medicines  Food sources Threats to Biodiversity 1. Habitat Loss  All gone  Habitat Fragmentation o Many/few o Aggregated/disperse o Compact/complex o Habitat corridors between gaps help species o Area of fragmentation size determines #of species/# population 2. Introduced species  Those that humans move from native locations to new geographic regions.  Non-native, invasive, alien  Without native predators, parasites, and pathogens, introduced species may spread rapidly.  Introduced species that gain a foothold in a new habitat disrupt the community.  Transport -> introduction -> establishment -> spread.  Marine species through shipping channels.  Drastic though shipping channels and major ports.  Usually introduced predators. 3. Overharvesting  Overharvesting of natural resources 4. Global Change  Temperature increase  CO2 increase in atmosphere  Ozone depletion  UV coming through harming species (fish)  Removing nutrients from places, and putting them in farmland  Overloading fertilizers. Run off into water sources.  Pollutants  Bioaccumulation – concentration of pollutants in higher trophic levels & predators Solutions:  Preserving natural areas  Conserving energy & resources  Reducing waste & consumption Animals Characteristics:  Heterotrophic  Movement  Organs/tissues  Respiration/Metabolism  Multi-cellular  Skeletal Structure  Reproduction abilities  Regulation: inner heat, etc. Specific  Body plan/structure o Symmetry o Tissue o Body cavity o Support  Survive o Feed o Move o Waste removal o Reproduction  Specific adaptations o Unique o Defining characteristic, cell, etc… Animal Anscestor Unikonta -> Choanoflagellates - flagella beat and tentacles pull into body - not animal Cambrian explosion  Diversification  Predation Symmetry:  Radial symmetry: split in any up/down plane (1+plane)  Bilateral symmetry: Split in half (1plane) o Top: Dorsal o Bottom: Ventral o Head: Anterior o Tail: Posterior o Cephalization: formation of a head  Bilateral, radial (Cnidarians), asymmetrical (sponges)(no defined form) Tissue Layers/Body Plan: No layers – sponges Diploblastic (2 layers – Endo & Ecto) – Cnidarians Triploblastic (all 3 layers – Endo & Meso & Ecto)  3 categories, based on Coelom (body cavity) o Acoelomate -> no body cavity, still 3 layers o Pseudocoelomate ->not completely lined w/ mesoderm o Coelomate -> True body cavity (has muscle around the digestive tract)  Blastopore: first indentation will become digestive tract  Protostome:  Blastopore -> Mouth  Dueterostome:  Blastopore -> Anus o Space defined by muscle: lined vs. not lined  Flatworms, Mollusks, Annelids &  Roundworms, arthropods  Echinoderms, chordates 3 embryonic germ tissue layers:  Ectoderm –outer covering -> Skin & central nervous system  Mesoderm – inner layer -> muscles  Endoderm – innermost layer -> digestive tract Morphological vs Molecular Look: Similar:  More clades  Mutations  Analogous  Parsimony Invertebrates Porifera: Sponges Phylum : porifera Common name: sponges  Closest to choanoflagellates.  Most ancestral animal ancestor.  Before Cambrian explosion Structure:  Pore: opening on outside  Choanocytes: beat flagella to create in-current  Amoebocytes: absorbs nutrients & moves it around the sponge  Water goes in through pore -> into spongocoel -> expelled out through osculum NEED TO KNOW!  How feed  Describe water movement  Structure  Specialized features Cnidarians: Polyps: coral & anemones Medusa: Jellyfish Branching tips on ends of tentcles:  Cnidocytes: o Nematocysts:  harpoon w/ toxins Coral Reefs:  Rainformests of the sea  Cover less than 1% ocean surface  >20 degrees tropical water.  <60 m depth  Highest marine biodiversity o 10,000+ fish species o 100,000 invertebrate & sea species  Highest marine primary productivity o swamp & marsh o algal beds & coral reefs Jellyfish:  Palau Indonesia -> freshwater lakes w/ photosynthetic jellyfish  Unique adaptations  Cubazoans: (box jellyfish) o Highly venomous o Have many eyes o Actively hunt prey Lophotrochozoa:  Defined by molecular data  Lophophore: o Crown of ciliated tentacles  Trochophore larva: o Free swimming larva using cilia  Two traits not contained in all phyla, but in many of them.  18 phyla in group. Platyhelminthes  Protonephridia (excretion organ) o Network of tubes with ciliated structures (flame bulbs) o They pull fluid from inside o Excrete through pores  Parasitic flatworms: o Many hosts o Multiple host:  Intermediate  Terminal o Behavior modification o Examples:  Trematodes  Tape worms  Behaviour Modification: o Ants eat snail slime(with liver fluke eggs) o Move to brain and cause ants to move to top of plants at dusk only in presence of cows o Grass (and ants) are eaten by cow o Liver fluke developes o Eggs are excreted by cow. o Eggs are eaten by snails. o late summer:  crickets jump into water  significant part of trout’s diet  more benthic insects (less predation)  decomposition of detritus  making more nutrients available. Rotifera  Parthenogenesis: o Females reproduce by creating unfertilized eggs that develop into other females. o No males needed.  Alimentary canal: o Mouth & anus Mollusca Special Features: Muscular foot  Used for movement Visceral mass  Contains most of the internal organs Mantle  Organ that secretes the shell Radula  Rough tongue-like scraping organ used in feeding 6 types: Chiton:  Oval shaped body  Shell: 8 dorsal plates Gastropods:  Snails, slugs, sea-slugs  Long tube-shaped body  1 shell, spiral in shape  2 openings; mouth and anus  Torsion o When visceral mass (body) rotates 180 degrees during development so that the anus and mouth are on the same side. Bivalves:  2 valves, 2 shells  All aquatic  Oysters, clams, muscles, scallops  Gills within visceral mass ->2O exchange Cephalopods:  Squid, octopus, cuttlefish  Active hunters  Tentacles, beak  Foot -> siphon; jet propulsion -> squirts water out very fast to propel forward.  Only ones with Closed Circulatory System.  Highly intellingent  Change colours -> chromatophores  Very strong vision (similar to human eyes) o Analogous structures -> convergent evolution  Large and small species Marine biologist scream video  Can change skin texture  Only animal group that can change their own skin  Change skin by sight, not touch  Colour-blind -> capable of matching colours  Chromataphores -> Yellow/red/brown  Reflectors show blues/greens (other wavelengths)  Constantly camouflaging animal, cells never sleep  3-4 basic pattern templates o Uniform -> little – no difference o Mottled -> o Disruptive -> Octopus  Chromataphores -> Yellow/red/brown  Reflectors show blues/greens (other wavelengths)  Intelligent  Mimic Octopus o Camouflage to different surroundings o Mimic other creatures as well. o Change behavior to resemble other creatures o Impersonate lionfish, flounders, sea-snakes, etc…  Blue-ringed Octopus o Toxin 100,000x more toxic than cyanide  Ink disguise  Beak determines how small they can fit.  Can climb out of water for short periods of time Cuttlefish  Mimic females to mate with other males harem. Annelida  Segmented worms  Types: o Giant Australian earthworm o Leeches o Polycheate worms (marine)  Internal Structure: o Complex digestive tract o Mouth -> pharynx -> crop -> gizzard -> intestine -> metanephridium (metabolic waste excretion) -> o Advanced multiple hearts pump blood o Take note of “increasing complex internal structures” o More development of brain (cerebral ganglia) Nematodes & Arthropods Ecdysozoans: Nematoda & Arthropoda Main characteristics:  Shed tough external coat  8 phyla, more species than all other animal, protest, funi, and plants combined.  Extremely diverse (thought to be from the exoskeleton) Nematodes Internal structure:  Mainly reproductive organs Ecological effects:  Many live in soils and are decomposers  Parasites: o Plants o Animals – swells lymph nodes o Trichinella spiralia -> cysts in meat, when eaten, move to blood system & reproduce. Worms move to heart & brain and damage tissues. -> lead to heart failure and central nervous system damage.  Many beneficial. o C. elegans  Decomposing nematode  Model scientific organism:  Animal development  Nervous system  RNA function  Meiosis and mitosis  1 orgaisms to completely sequence its genome  589,000 scientific articles. Arthropods Evolution:  Complex diversified structures to help survival  Many diversities General structure:  Head  Thorax  Abdomen  Some may be fused together  Rigid exoskeleton o Protection o Prevents desiccation (land arthropods) o Drawback: needs to molt to grow larger Internal structure:  Hemolymph o Open circulatory system o Heart pumps -> move fluids around Types:  Chelicerae (spiders)  Myiapods (millipede)  Insects (bees, beetles)  Crustaceans (crabs, lobsters) Chelicerates: Defining Characteristic:  Chelicerae o Clawlike feeding appendages o Fangs, pincers  Types o Spider o Tick o Horseshoe crab o Scorpion Spider (arachnid) Adaptations:  Spinnerets  Book-lungs: o Stacks of plate-like structures o Increased surface area -> increased respiration  Pedipalps: o Sensing o Feeding o Reproduction  Extreme shape diversity Insects  Most # of species o Due to beetles o 350,000 + species  Extremely diverse  Internal structure: o Hearts beat -> push hemoloath around o Increase in complexity o Larger Cerebral ganglion o Centers to help other body parts function o Diversity in appendages/ adaptations  Flight: o Wings are extension of cuticle o Dragonflies (ancient species)  Two independent wings o Most species wings are connected Monarch Butterfly migration video:  Nov-feb  Mexico  3,000 miles to roost for hibernation  Monarchs dependent on milkweed.  Feed and lay eggs on milkweed  “milkweed highway”  lays eggs multiple times through out trip over many locations  Butterflies are one
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