BI SC 004 Study Guide - Comprehensive Midterm Guide: Endoplasmic Reticulum, Cell Membrane, Elastic Cartilage

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BI SC 004
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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BISC 004
Lecture 1
The Chemistry of Life
Life on Earth is made of chemical elements
All objects in the universe are made up of matter
Matter consists of one or more elements
Approximately:
o 25 elements are essential to life
You are what you eat
Building blocks from large to small
Matter is anything that:
o Has mass
o Takes up space
Examples:
Solid
Liquid
Gas
Elements are the basic building blocks of matter that:
o Cannot be broken down by chemical means
Atoms are the smallest units of an element that:
o Retain the element’s properties
Physical
Chemical
These bond together
o Form molecules
Subatomic particles of atoms
Neutrons
o Neutral (uncharged)
Protons
o Positively charged
Neutrons and protons make up the nucleus
Electrons
o Negatively charged
o Orbit around the nucleus
Hydrogen
o Electron
o Proton
Oxygen
o Electrons
o Protons
o Neutrons
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Molecules
Made of atoms that are bonded together
Can be made of:
o The same atom
o Different atoms
Atoms that form molecules can form bonds in different ways
Ionic bonds
Atoms in this type of bond either:
o Donate electrons
o Accept electrons
Results in a stable outer “valence” shell
Occur between particles that are charged
o Ions
Examples:
o Sodium atom
o Chlorine atom
Together they make sodium chloride
Covalent bonds
Atoms in this type of bond share electrons
Result in a stable outer valence shell
Much stronger bond than ionic bond
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