Civil rights: protections by government power of the government. *civil rights protect individuals from arbitrary or discriminatory treatment at the hands. Understand the holdings (rulings) from the major civil rights court cases covered in class: dred scott v. sandford (1857) Ruled that slaves should be treated as property, could not sue because they were not citizens, and struck down the missouri compromise (missouri enters as a slave state, but is furthest north slave states can go) Framers intended for slaves to be citizens and federal law cannot come between an independent state and its property. Group of cases resulting in one sweeping decision in 1873 decreeing that most citizenship rights remained under state, not federal, control. *privileges and immunities clause protects people only from the national government (not from state governments: us v. cruikshank (1876) The court decided in this case that a mob attack on blacks trying to vote did not violate the.