Psych 100 Exam 3 Study Guide
PSYCH 100: Introduction to Psychology
Study Guide for Exam 3
Exam Date: In class on Wednesday, April 10 th
The exam will consist of 40 multiple choice questions.
Lecture 14 and Chapter 6 (pgs 212-216)
1. What is memory?
Memory is the persistence of learning over tie, through storage and retrieval of information.
2. Know the basic memory processes – encoding, storage and retrieval.
Encoding: getting info into the memory system
Storage: retention of info
Retrieval: getting the info out of storage
3. What is the information-processing model? Know the three-stage model of memory. Know that working memory
contains visual and auditory elements.
The information-processing model focuses on the changes in one’s brain as they mature and the idea that humans
process the info they receive rather than just responding to stimuli. The three-stage model consists of:
1) Sensory memory: immediate, brief recording of surroundings
2) Short-term memory: holds a few items briefly
3) Long-term memory: relatively permanent with limitless storage
Working memory is the realistic representation of short-term memory; the working model states that info will be
retained as long as it is rehearsed thus it contains auditory and visual elements.
4. Know that we automatically process things in time and space. Know that other things require effort to process.
Automatic processing is the act of effortlessly processing an enormous amount of info such as space, time and
frequency. Other things such as novel information requires effort to process, i.e. learning things from a textbook
and memorizing facts. These things require repetition and rehearsal.
5. Know that more rehearsal can lead to better memory. Know the types of rehearsal.
Maintenance rehearsal: repeating info to keep it in working memory; once you stop it goes away but if you
continue it could pass into LTM.
Elaborative rehearsal: transfer of information from STM to LTM by making it meaningful via semantic
(meaning), acoustic (sound, like putting facts to a tune), or visual (associating words with pictures). Most of the
time visual encoding works the best because mental pictures are a powerful aid to effortful processing especially
when combined with semantic encoding (Stephen Wiltshire).
Lecture 15 and Chapter 6 (pgs 217-235)
1. Know the three memory stores (sensory, working/short-term, and long-term) and the characteristics of each.
Sensory: very first stage of memory & the point at which info enters the nervous system thru the sensory
organs/main process is pattern recognition (icons/echoes)/capacity is large but limited/duration is very brief
Short-term: memory system in which info is held for brief periods of time while being used (working memory is an
active system that processes the info in STM) Psych 100 Exam 3 Study Guide
Long-term: system of memory into which all the info is placed to be kept more or less permanently/capacity is
unlimited for all practical purposes
2. What is selective attention? What role does it play in memory?
Selective attention is the ability to focus on only one stimulus from among all other sensory input, i.e. it determines
which information gets passed on from sensory memory for further processing by STM.
3. Know the types of long-term information.
Procedural LTM: type of LTM including memory for skills, procedures, habits, and conditioned responses. These
memories aren’t conscious but are implied to exist because they affect conscious behavior.
Declarative LTM: type of LTM containing info that is conscious and known – facts and information that makes up
Semantic: contains general knowledge such as knowledge of language and info learned thru education
Episodic: contains personal info not readily available to others such as daily activities & events
4. Know the ways to measure retrieval: recall, recognition, and relearning.
Recall: type of memory retrieval in which the info to be retrieved must be “pulled” from memory with very few
Recognition: ability to match a piece of info or a stimulus to a stored image or fact
Relearning: no explanation needed
5. What are retrieval cues? What is encoding specificity?
Retrieval cues: stimuli for remembering (more cues = easier retrieval)
Encoding specificity: tendency for memory of info to be improved if related info (such as surroundings or
physiological state) that is available when the memory is first formed is available when the memory is being
6. Know the serial position effect and the tip of the tongue phenomena.
Serial position effect: tendency of info at the beginning (primacy) and end (recency) of a body of info to be
remembered more accurately than info in the middle
Tip of the tongue phenomena: when a piece of information is readily available but you can’t fully remember it just
yet even though you could say how long the word is or name letters that start or even end the word. Best solution is
to forget about it because when you forget, the brain will continue to retrieval process so you’ll remember it later.
7. Know that context, mental state (drunk, sober), and mood can affect memory, including the results of studies that
Lecture 16 and Chapter 6 (pgs 235-247)
1. Know how forgetting can be due to failures of encoding, storage or retrieval.
Encoding failure: failure to process info into memory; some things never get encoded in the first place!
Decay: loss of memory due to passage of time during which memory trace is not used
Disuses: memories that are not used will eventually decay and disappear.
Proactive & retroactive interference as well!
2. How quickly do we forget? Know the spacing effect.
The curve of forgetting shows that forgetting is very fast within the first hour after learning a list and then tapers off
gradually (seen with Ebbinghaus study of “nonsense syllables”). Cramming info can also lead to forgetting
therefore Ebbinghaus endorsed the spacing effect, or distributed practice, which is the spacing of the study of
material to be remembered by including breaks between study periods. Psych 100 Exam 3 Study Guide
3. Understand the difference between proactive and retroactive interference. Can sleeping help?
Proactive interference: info learned earlier interferes with info learned later
Retroactive interference: info learned later interferes with info learned earlier
Usually, sleeping helps because interference is more likely to occur when one retains info while tired.
4. Know that memory is a constructive process and how reconstruction can lead to false memories (e.g.
misinformation effect & source amnesia). Know the Loftus study (car accident study).
Memory is a constructive process; we filter and fill in information to make recalling more coherent. Reconstruction
can lead to:
- misinformation effect: incorporation misleading info into one’s memory of an events
- hindsight bias: false belief that one could or should have predicted the outcome of an event
- source amnesia: attributing an event to the wrong source such as something we’ve heard, read, or imagined
- eyewitness memory: it is hard to access accuracy with no objective evidence because memories could be
tainted by the misinfo affect
Loftus study: two car accidents shown; participants who were asked the “smashed” question thought the cars were
going faster than those who were asked the “hit” question. When people were asked a week after viewing the film
whether they saw any broken glass at the scene (there was none), people in the smashed group were more likely to
5. Is it possible to implant memories? Know the studies that provide evidence for implanted memories.
It is possible to implant memories, as seen from the Loftus car accident study mentioned above as well as the
Hyman & Billings study which involved obtaining 4 real childhood memories and 1 fake one and then asking if
child had remembered them; two days later they had all “remembered” the fake “memory.”
6. What is long-term potentiation?
LTP is the synaptic enhancement of memory after learning, i.e. the increase in neurotransmitters, which release
receptors into the receiving neurons.
7. Where are implicit and explicit memories processed?
Explicit memories are processed in the hippocampus while the cerebellum processes implicit memories.
8. Know the differences between retrograde and anterograde amnesia. In anterograde amnesia, can memories still be
Retrograde amnesia is the loss of memory from the past and is related to the consolidation process; extent of loss
depends on extent of damage to the brain. Anterograde amnesia is when one can remember events from before their
trauma but no new events afterwards. Those with anterograde amnesia can’t exactly form new memories but they
can learn new procedural activities as seen with patient HM and the mirror-drawing activity.
Chapter 6 – From the Book
1. What are false positives in recognition?
False positives are errors of recognition in which people think that they recognize some stimulus that is not actually
Lecture 17 and Chapter 14 (pgs 530-549)
1. Know what must be included in a diagnosis of a psychological disorder (deviant, distressful, and dysfunctional).
Persistently harmful thoughts, feelings and action along with behavior that is deviant, distressful and dysfunctional. Psych 100 Exam 3 Study Guide
2. What is the biological model? What are the psychological models? Know that to understand disorders, you have to
look from a biopsychosocial approach.
Biological model: concept that diseases can be diagnosed, treated and cured
Biopsychosocial approach: assumes that biological, socio-cultural and psychological factors combine and
interact since some disorders are worldwide and some are culture specific.
3. Which disorders are worldwide?
Schizophrenia and depression.
4. Know what the DSM IV is, and how it is used to classify and label disorders. Does the DSM IV provide reliable
diagnoses across practitioners?
DSM IV is a system used to describe disorders and classify them based on a list of symptoms out of which they
must fulfill at least five or more. The symptoms are highly specific thus diagnoses across practitioners are usually
similar and reliable.
5. What can happen to someone who is labeled with a psychological disorder?
Labels can cause bias, affect our judgment and give us preconceived notions that may very well turn out to be false;
this can sometimes lead to unfair treatment and false diagnoses.
6. Know the anxiety disorders (generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, and phobias). What are the symptoms of
Generalized anxiety disorder: anxiety that is unrelated to any realistic, known source
Panic disorder: disorder in which panic attacks occur frequently enough to cause the person difficulty in adjusting
to daily life (panic attacks are a sudden onset of intense panic in which symptoms of stress occur along with a
feeling of doom)
Phobia: irrational, persistent fear of an object, situation or social activity
Social phobia: fear of interacting with others or being in social situations that might lead to a negative evaluation
(symptoms include the avoidance of social situations and shyness, i.e. stage fright or fear of public speaking)
Specific phobia: fear of specific situations or events
Claustrophobia: fear of being in a small, enclosed space
Acrophobia: fear o heights
Agoraphobia: fear of being in a place or situation from which escape is difficult or impossible (anxiety & panic
7. What is obsessive-compulsive disorder? What are the most common symptoms?
OCD is a disorder in which intruding, recurring thoughts or obsessions create anxiety that is relieved by performing
a repetitive, ritualistic behavior or mental act.
8. Know acute and post-traumatic stress disorder? What are the symptoms?
ASD is a disorder resulting from exposure to a major stressor, with symptoms of anxiety, dissociation, recurring
nightmares, sleep disturbances, problems in concentration, and moments in which people seem to relive the event
in dreams and flashbacks for as long as 1 month following the event
PTSD is a disorder resulting from exposure to a major stressor with symptoms of anxiety, dissociation, recurring
nightmares, sleep disturbances, problems in concentration, and moments in which people seem to relive the event
in dreams and flashbacks for more than 1 month
9. What are the causes of anxiety disorders?
Psychodynamic model suggests sees anxie